Pacific B usiness R eview I nternational

A Refereed Monthly International Journal of Management Indexed With THOMSON REUTERS(ESCI)
ISSN: 0974-438X
Impact factor (SJIF): 6.56
Editorial Board

Prof. B. P. Sharma
(Editor in Chief)

Prof. Mahima Birla
(Additional Editor in Chief)

Dr. Khushbu Agarwal
(Editor)

Ms. Asha Galundia
(Circulation Manager)

Editorial Team

Dr. Devendra Shrimali

Dr. Dharmesh Motwani

Mr. Ramesh Modi

A Refereed Monthly International Journal of Management
February 2018

Name : Index
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Name : Macroeconomic Variables of India and Finite Sample Properties of OLS under Classical Assumptions
Author : Dr. Mohd Nayyer Rahman
Abstract :
One of the emerging branches for economic analysis is econometrics. It is a conglomeration of mathematical economics, statistics, and economic theory. Macroeconomic variables are largely used by researchers for myriad analysis and for that matter regression (OLS) is widely used. However, what is generally ignored by a large section of researchers are the classical assumptions of regression. In the present study, an empirical investigation is taken up with respect to selected macroeconomic variables in terms of the OLS classical assumptions. The objective remains to understand the internal dynamics of the time series and to argue the prerequisite of the classical assumptions for any time series analysis in econometrics. The study may be used for understanding the default properties of macroeconomic time series variables.
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Name : Television Advertising Effectiveness: A Cognitive Recall Mechanism
Author : Dr. Saumendra Das
Abstract :
Advertisements are the part of our lives. When we do something, where ever we stay or how we behave ourselves, advertising became the integral part of our life. Advertisements in television influenced us in many occasions for which it affects a cognitive recall approach for every television viewers. In the present study it observed that while a viewer watch a serial in television he/she often forgot the advertisements which telecasted in between the programme. But it effects when the viewer watch the same advertisement repeatedly or in different programme, however the cognitive recall response reveals the purchase action. The present paper made an attempt to build a relationship between the advertising effectiveness in television and its programmes.
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Name : Voluntary Disclosure Practices of Selected Commercial Banks in India: A Comparative Study
Author : Indu Yadav, Dr. Prashant Kumar
Abstract :
Voluntary disclosure practices play an important role to earn goodwill for a business. As Disclosure of high quality financial and non financial information becomes useful for stakeholders to take decisions. It refers to disclosure of accounting and other information deemed relevant to the decision needs of users of their annual reports. Therefore, making it necessary for banks to makes timely and full disclosures. This paper is an attempt to examine the present position of voluntary disclosure practices prevailing in commercial banks in India. In addition, it also makes a comparative analysis of voluntary disclosure practices of public and private sector banks in India for the period 2012-2016
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Name : Firm Size and Performance with special reference to Multinational Pharmaceutical Firms
Author : S.FELIX SOPHIA, Dr.J.GAYATHRI
Abstract :
The study analyses firm size and its impact on the performance of the firm.The objective of the study is to analyze the relationship between firm size represented by net sales and firm performance with reference to capital intensity, export intensity, profit intensity, research and development intensity, total forex earnings and total imports.Also it studies whether the size of the firm have an edge over their performance. Data for the study was collected from CMIE Prowess Database for the period of 10 years from 2007-2016. The statistical tools namely correlation, regression and Granger causality were used for the study. The results confirm that only total forex earnings, profitintensity,total imports and export intensity had an impact on the performance of the sample multinational firms during the study period.
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Name : Studying the Relationship ofamong the Marketing Strategy, Perceived Risk, Trust and the Intention of Purchasing in Cyberspace Customers
Author : Dr. Vahid Reza Mirabi, Dr. Abbas Saleh Ardestani, Meghdad Farajpour Pirbasti
Abstract :
Today, cyberspace business is developing; these type of companies is looking forward to discover the factors (positive and negative both) that affect the customers’ purchases to increase the intention of customers with strengthening the positive factors and eliminate the negative factors and as well as helps in increaseing the sales volume of products and offer better services to the customers. The present research studies the relationship between marketing strategy, perceived risk, trust and intention of purchasing in cyberspace customers in Iran. This study is applicable in terms of purpose and the research method is descriptive-survey. The sample consists of 400 customers of cyberspace companies located in Tehran, capital of Iran. The standard questionnaire was used for this purpose. Modeling of structural equations and minor partial squares methods were used to analyze the data. The results of this research showed that marketing strategy has a negative effect on perceived risk. It was also confirmed that there is thea negative impact of risk on customer confidence. In the following, it was found that the trust has a positive impact on customers’ purchase singintention.
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Name : Association between Capital Structure & Profitability: A Study of Real Estate Companies in India
Author : Dr. P .Hanumantha Rao
Abstract :
Capital structure decision is an important decision in the domain of finance manager as it is supposed to affect the profitability of business undertaking. A wrong decision in this regards will not only affect the ability of the business to earn profit, but also the ability of the business to pay lender on time. Real estate of the country is in the midst of number of policies changes like demonetization, passage of RERA Act, implementation of GST and approval of the recommendation of 7th pay commission. Each of these policies has significant influence on the performance of real estate companies in India. The article attempts to study how debt equity mix affect the profitability of real estate companies in India by taking into account 8 sample companies for five financial years from 2011-12 to 2015-16. Profitability is measured by return on capital employed, return on equity and net profit margin ratios whereas capital is measured by debt equity and debt to total fund ratio.
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Name : Volatility Estimation using GARCH Family of Models: Comparison with Option Pricing
Author : Dr. Shailesh Rastogi, Mr. Jeffrey Don, Ms. Nithya V,
Abstract :
Volatility estimation has been at the centre stage for Risk Management in securities market. There are various methods, which come to rescue for estimation of volatility. GARCH family of models are also in the same league and have been quite useful for estimating volatility. But post hoc there are no methods to estimate the accuracy of the forecast of the volatility estimates by various methods. Implied Volatility (IV) takes into consideration the market prices of options, and estimate the future volatility of the underlying assets. Empirically, it has been found that IV is a better future estimate of the volatility. Using current options prices in Indian derivatives market, IV has been estimated for all the permitted stocks. These IVs have been compared with volatility estimated by GARCH family of models in this paper. IGARCH (Integrated GARCH) model is giving the best results among all the other methods used in the paper.
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Name : Day of the Week Effect in Returns and Volatility of Nifty 50: An Evidence using High Frequency Data
Author : Haritika Arora
Abstract :
Return and volatility patterns of stock market are of huge concerns for academicians, investors, traders and market regulators. Availability of high frequency data has made a paradigm shift to re-test these patterns. Therefore, this study has tried to explore Day of the week effect in return and volatility using the five-minute interval of Nifty 50 for the period before and after introduction of pre-opening session. Results depicts that Monday and Friday returns are significant for period before the introduction of pre-opening session. However, no day of the week effect is evident for period after the introduction of pre-opening session. Additionally, volatility significantly differ across the trading days except on Monday (before the introduction of pre-opening session) and Friday (after the introduction of pre-opening session). Highest volatility is observed on Thursday in both the sub-periods. However, lowest volatility is observed on Tuesday for the period before the introduction of pre-opening session and Wednesday for the period after the introduction of pre-opening session.
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Name : EXAMINING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TRADE NEGOTIATING SKILLS AND SALES MANAGERS’S PERFORMANCE: A CASE STUDY OF FOOD DISTRIBUTION COMPANIES OF GUILAN
Author : Ali Reza Faraji, Dr. Vahid Reza Mirabi
Abstract :
Communication skills are the most imperative skills for any sales manager, because the success of a manager depends on his ability to communicate effectively with others rather than his technical abilities. The main objective of this study is to investigate the relationship between business managers with sales negotiation skills of food distribution companies of Gilan. It’s an empirical study and the correlation and regression methods have been employed to study the relationship. The study population included all managers of food distribution companies in Gilan province, which contains 11 persons. Since the research community is small, the samples included in the study are equal to the total number of managers. A standard questionnaire of Robert Heller has been taken to collect information. The Cronbach's alpha score was 0. 81 indicating reliability of the questionnaire. In the study Shapiro-Wilk test, regression for data normalization and Spearman correlation coefficient has been used for data analysis with the help of SPSS software. From the analysis it was observed that there is a significant positive relationship between negotiating skills and sales performance by the sales managers.
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Name : Impact of Demonetisation in India- A study of Indian customer inclination towards digital transactions
Author : Rajesh S Sharma , Dr. N S Bhalla
Abstract :
After the historic announcement of demonitisation on 8th November 2016, Indian citizens have been observing a change from being a cash economy to cashless economy. The primary objective behind this announcement was to curb black money and also to make citizens of India aware about the benefits of digitized economy. Government of India has started various lucrative schemes to motivate a person to use online banking and to make payments through mobile payment apps, credit card, debit card etc. Also RBI has taken important steps to discourage the customer to withdraw money from teller counter. This paper is based upon the secondary data collected from newspapers, magazines, Internet and is an attempt to know about Indian citizen comfort level with online transactions.
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Name : Human Resource Practices and Satisfaction of Managerial Employees in Indian Textile Industry
Author : Shruti, N.S. Bhalla, T.S. Sidhu, Sanjeev
Abstract :
In the ever changing environment with a highly competitive market economy, the human resources provide an edge to an organization. This paper studies job satisfaction of managerial employees working in Indian textile industry. For the purpose of the research 227 participants were randomly selected. Job satisfaction was measured by likert scale. Results revealed that all the levels of employees perceive human resource (HR) practices and job satisfaction at the same level. Results show that job satisfaction had great impact of four HR practices training & development, compensation, reward & recognition and welfare activities. The results showed that for the development of any strategy it is necessary to find out its impact on the job satisfaction of the employees.
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Name : Social Compliance Factors (SCF) Affecting Employee Productivity (EP): An Empirical Study on RMG Industry in Bangladesh
Author : Mohammad Nurul Alam, Dr.RosimaBte. Alias, Mohammad TahlilAzim
Abstract :
Ready-Made Garment (RMG) industry of Bangladesh has secured the top position for foreign currency earnings today and has created 4 million people's employment opportunities into the country. This sector has grownup exponentially over the last 3 decades. Now, it is considered as lifeblood of the nation’s economic progress. Despite its phenomenal success, this industry is facing numerous challenges including two core issues which are low productivity of workers and social compliance. The study aims at identifying the effect of social compliance factors on employee productivity in the garment industry in Bangladesh from garment workers' viewpoint. For doing this, there are 17 social compliance factors were considered which were identified from the literature review. A total of 200 different categories of RMG workers were selected from different department & types of garment factories located at Narayangonj & Dhaka cities. A structured questionnaire was distributed among the workers with the options of strongly disagree, disagree, moderate, agree, and strongly agree. Analysis of these 17 factors indicates that the nine factors i.e. working hours, wages & benefits, discrimination, harassment & abuse, leave & holidays, workplace conditions, forced labour, welfare, and employment relations are most significantly effect on employee productivity followed by four significant factors i.e. health, safety, women’s rights, and freedom of association and the remaining four factors i.e. management system, environment, child labour, and OSH management system & training neither positively or negatively effect on employee productivity in RMG sector in Bangladesh. The garment factory owners and the government of Bangladesh should realize and concern to comply these highly impact 9 issues on employee productivity of Bangladeshi RMG industry which will ultimately neutralize the implementation costs of Social Compliance (SC).
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Name : A Causal Link between Receipts and Expenditure of State Governments in India
Author : Rashpaljeet Kaur, Dr. Rajinder Kaur
Abstract :
The goal of this paper is to analyze the causal relationship between total receipts and total expenditure of state governments in India for 1991-92 to 2015-16 using modified version of Granger causality test given by Toda and Yamamoto (1995). The study uses the annual time series data. The data is analyzed to determine its stationary using Augmented Dickey Fuller (ADF) unit root test. The four schools of thoughts have been included in this paper on the basis of vast literature available about this relation. Our application of the Toda - Yamamoto Granger causality test found that there is neutrality between total receipts and expenditure of state governments in India. This result supports the institutional separation thought given by Baghestani and McNown (1994).
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Name : Working Capital Policy of Indian Service Industry
Author : Dr. Sumita Shroff Goyal
Abstract :
Working capital policy of every enterprise assumes great significance as it affects not only the routine business but also the strategic decisions related to sourcing funds for the same. An aggressive approach may prove to be risky but profitable whereas, vice versa is the case for conservative approach. Appropriate working capital policies ensure both, the short term as well as the long term solvency of a firm coupled with the smooth functioning. Service sector is driving the growth of Indian economy with its impressive share of fifty four percent in gross domestic product. Considering the same, the current study attempts to examine the working capital policy as represented by working capital ratios of the Indian Service Industry for a period of fifteen years from 1995-96 to 2009-10. Twenty four ratios classified into five subgroups were selected for the purpose of analysis. Current assets structure, Current Liabilities Structure, Liquidity and Working capital Policy was examined. Receivables dominated the current asset structure and Trade Credit dominated the current liabilities structure of service industry. It followed an aggressive current asset financing policy and is moving towards an aggressive current asset investment policy. Service industry enjoyed sound liquidity position throughout the study period.
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Name : Problem Faced by New Mothers in Balancing Work and Family Life
Author : Anuradha, Mrinalini Pandey
Abstract :
In 21st century demands of work and life have increased as a result, it has now difficult for women to synchronize work and family life. The dilemma of working women becomes much more crucial after becoming mother. Indian mothers quit their jobs to raise their children, sacrificing their family-responsibilities so they can spend most of time with their family. Against this backdrop, the present study has been undertaken to determine the various dimensions of work and family, which hinders work-life balance of new mothers. In this paper, the relationship of work and family-related problems to work-life conflict has been studied. This study is based on the responses of 189 private sector employees who are mothers and having a first child below the age of 3 years. Various statistical tools namely reliability, correlation and multiple regression analysis have been carried out to test the above mentioned problems. Result finds that mothers face problems such as childcare, waking up at night, household chores, lack of family support at home while inflexible work schedule and heavy work load at work. Finally, it concludes that family-related problems are dominant over work-related problem for such working mothers.
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Name : The Influence of Internal Marketing on Employee-Based Brand Equity: A Case of Hotel Industry
Author : Rajani Kumari Sarangal
Abstract :
The purpose of the study is to investigate the influence of internal marketing (IM) practices on employee-based brand equity (EBBE) in hotel industry. According to the categorization of Jammu and Kashmir Tourism Development Corporation, all the A-Category hotels in Jammu city were selected to participate in this study. A questionnaire derived from the literature review was completed by 173 employees working in A-category hotels in Jammu, India. Correlation analysis is applied to assess the relationship between the variables and followed by regression analysis to find out the impact of independent variables (IM) on the dependent variable (EBBE). Results of the statistical analysis showed that internal marketing practices have greater influence on building employee-based brand equity in A-category hotels within Jammu city. Study will address the influence of IM as an antecedent of EBBE in hotels. Hence, it makes a contribution for both scholars and practitioners alike since study will derive a comprehensive study of practice of marketing internally so as to build higher EBBE.
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Name : Ownership Structure and Firm Performance- Evidence from Indian Firms
Author : Rupali Gupta
Abstract :
The purpose of present study is to empirically investigate the effect of ownership structure, and ownership concentration on financial performance of companies in India. The study examines the cross-sectional variation in Tobin’s Q with respect to changes in ownership structure and its concentration for top 100 companies listed on NSE as on 31st March 2016. Durbin Wu Hausman test is applied to test whether ownership variables are endogenously determined or not. The results of DWH test did not document any evidence of endogeneity of ownership. Ordinary least square regression technique is employed to analyze the data. The study finds no significant relationship between ownership structure (promoters’ shareholding and non-promoters’ shareholding) and Tobin’s Q. there is also no significant relationship between ownership concentration and TOBIN’S Q. The findings of the study are in line with the arguments of Demsetz (1983).
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Name : Effect of Transformational Leadership through Organizational Trust and Moral Judgment on Sales Performance: An Empirical Case Study
Author : Farideh Haghshenas Kashani, Arezu Shabani
Abstract :
This study tends to examine the effect of transformational leadership through organizational trust and moral judgment on sales performance in the Pars Animal Feed Company as an empirical case study. The statistical population includes all sales personnel of the Pars Animal Feed Company. The number of samples is determined by Cochran formula. Sales personnel were categorized into six groups for each sales director of geographical regions of Iran. Then, statistical sample is determined by the number of employees in each class. The questionnaire is distributed randomly among managers and sales personnel. This study measures four main components including transformational leadership, organizational trust, moral judgment and sales performance. Data extracted from questionnaires is analysed by LISREL 8.5. Validity and reliability of questionnaires are estimated by content analysis and using Cronbach's alpha and Fisher's exact test. Results show that transformational leadership has a positive and significant effect on organizational trust; organizational trust has a positive and significant effect on moral judgment; moral judgment has a positive and significant effect on sales performance in the Pars Animal Feed Company.
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Name : Growth of Indian Agriculture and the Building of Agrarian Crisis: Diabolic Implications and Corrective Policies
Author : Dr. Vikram Chadha, Sandeep Kaur
Abstract :
The agricultural progress was not satisfactory since independence but the continuous efforts by the Government in different plan periods had made Indian agriculture grow at the rate of 2.6 per cent per annum in the post independence era. This was the result of the different development programmes and institutional changes introduced by the Indian Government i.e. Land Reforms, Agricultural Price Commission, new agricultural strategy, investment in research and extension services, credit facilities and improved rural infrastructure etc. Despite these, there were several constraints and disturbing features which led to the decadence of agriculture. The erratic growth in agriculture is not only associated with the vagaries of nature, but in addition, disease and pests, poor returns as a consequence of low prices and increasing cost, spurious inputs, greater demand for credit to have access over the necessary inputs have added to misery. Thus, there are multiple risks in agricultural income, yield, price, input technology and credit. In the First Five Year Plan, it was stated that the increase in agricultural production represented the highest priority in the Planning over next few years and the agrarian economy had to be diversified and brought to a higher level of efficiency. To fulfill this objective, it was necessary to remove several impediments to agricultural production. There was a strong opinion that the first requisite was the transformation in the agrarian structure in India for stimulating better farming. The Government had also initiated some programmes to regenerate Indian agriculture which had stagnated during the British period such as the Community Development Programme, decentralised planning and the Intensive Area Development Programme. Although the different development schemes were introduced as a structural response by the Union Government with support from the State Governments and there was a positive outcome such that agricultural growth rate was 3.7 during 2005-06 to 2010-11, but it was still short of the 4 per cent plan target set in the successive plans from the Ninth Plan onwards. While other sectors such as industry and services had been increasing at faster rate, agriculture had been lagging behind. The slower growth of agriculture had widened the gap between rural and urban incomes and increased poverty in the economy because of dividing employment opportunities in other sectors of the economy. Consequently, they failed to reduce dependence on the agriculture. All these were the indication of an impending agrarian crisis in economy. The crisis manifested in the stressed natural resources, inadequate rural infrastructure, technology fatigue, rundown delivery systems in credit, extension and marketing services and insufficient agricultural planning at district and lower levels. The present paper attempted to study the evolution and growth of Indian agriculture since independence and the inherent dynamics of building of an agrarian crisis due to the failures and adverse implications of the different policy measures including land reforms, green revolution, crop diversification and in general, the contemporary economic reforms and other schemes.
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Name : Relevance of Manufacturing in Contemporary Indian Economy and Significance of Skill-India and Make-In-India Campaign
Author : Dr Vikram Chadha, Dr Neeru Chadha, Pooja Choudhary
Abstract :
In the historical evolution of economies, they grow from primarily agricultural stage into industrial manufacturing stage, and then enter the stage of developed tertiary services sector, with an overbearing contribution to employment and GDP. But in case of India, the economy, since the economic reforms, straight away landed in the services sector stage without the completion of the stage of a mature manufacturing economy. So in a way India skipped the stage of a mature manufacturing economy and thus remained bereft of many externalities that a time-tested manufacturing sector can bestow upon a rapidly developing economy. Thus the main objective of our paper is to highlight the specific role that the manufacturing can play in plugging the ills of the contemporary economy of India in its current phase of development, like unemployment, capital formation, skill formation and diversity of production to meet with growing needs of the society economically. This is thus consistent with the on- going Skill- India mission and Make-in-India programmes, which is hinged on improving ease of doing business and has the potential to attract foreign manufacturers and FDI to develop India as the global hub of manufacturing in the world.
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Name : Linking Entrepreneurial Orientation and Business Performance: Mediating Role of Knowledge Management Orientation
Author : Rayees Farooq, SandeepVij, Pooja Choudhary
Abstract :
Entrepreneurial orientation (EO) is a higher-order construct with innovativeness, proactiveness, and risk-taking as its dimensions. The objective of the study is to study the mediating role of knowledge management orientation (KMO) in the relationship between entrepreneurial orientation (EO) and business performance (BP). The personal survey was administered to senior level managers in decision making role (key informants) in 276 listed firms (both from manufacturing and service sector) from North Indian States and Union Territories [including Punjab, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Uttaranchal, Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Chandigarh and National Capital Region (NCR)]. Two respondents each from these 400 firms were approached. The relative performance of the organization compared to the major competitor for the last three years has been considered as the measure of business performance (BP). The scales were validated using exploratory factor analysis (EFA), confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and structural equation modeling (SEM). The findings suggest that entrepreneurial orientation positively affects business performance and knowledge management orientation mediates the relationship between entrepreneurial orientation and business performance. Implications of the study for practicing managers have been discussed.
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Name : Need and Impact of Base Erosion and Profit Shifting (BEPS) Project: An Indian Perspective
Author : Chandra Kant Parmar, Arpit Vashishtha
Abstract :
With the introduction of globalization although borders seem to be vanishing, a major challenge faced by the economy all over the world is the challenge of difference in policy around the world. The MNCs take benefits of these mismatches in policies to save themselves from paying taxes. There are many tax havens on globe which do levy no or low taxes on Corporates, Multinational Enterprises (MNEs) by eroding their bases to tax havens and shifting the profits there to avoid paying taxes. These type of arrangements are called BEPS (Base erosion and profit Shifting). This preferential tax competition results in low tax revenues to the developing countries that are mostly desperate for foreign investments. It also results in profits not being taxed anywhere on the globe making the countries, the resources of which are being exploited by these MNCs, more poor and vulnerable due to their increased dependence on foreign aids. Tax Justice Network estimated that losses arising as a result of the global system of taxation through tax havens up to 255 billion dollars per year. Oxfam Africa too has multiple times showed concern over this cycle of tax revenue loss and foreign aid in which developing African countries are trapped in. To address these challenges OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) a group of G-20 nations along with other developed and developing countries came up with Base Erosion and Profit Sharing Programme (BEPS) which formulated a 15 point action plan with the main goal of making profit taxable in the territories the resources of which are exploited to make such profit. The action plans aims at bringing transparency in the international taxation regime. These action plans are on the verge of being implemented worldwide and India is no exception. Such implementation will have multiple impacts on various industries, economy and society at large. The compliance burden is expected to increase but the registration of remote sellers is going to be simpler and mandatory as well. The effective tax rate of the MNCs, especially the outbound ones is forecasted to rise as they will no longer be able to avoid taxes using shell companies in tax havens. Some impact will be there on the indirect taxes like customs also with the change disclosure as well as valuation policies of mutual agreements and transfer pricing etc. However it is difficult to predict if this increase in effective tax rate will result in decrease in tax rates for individual assesse or will it result in better infrastructure.
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Name : An Analysis of HRM Issues & Challenges in Manufacturing in India
Author : Dr. J.K. Gulati
Abstract :
Four M’s i.e. machinery, money and materials and manpower constitute pillars of an enterprise. Where machinery, money and materials resource aspect is of non-living nature, manpower i.e. human resource is of living nature and is equipped with capability to convert the non-living category resources (money, machine, methods and material) in to output (product/service). HRM activities involve procurement; maintenance; utilization and development of workforce. Adoption and practices of HRM in a manufacturing sector are drastically different from service sector. Manufacturing industry refers to those industries which are involved in the manufacturing and processing of items and indulge in either creation of new commodities or in value addition. It may involve a range of mechanical/manual human activity wherein raw materials are transformed into finished goods on a large scale. The final products can either serve as a finished good for sale to customers or as intermediate goods used in the production process. Make in India regarded as a national moment in India is brain child of present NDA Government at Centre. The major objective behind the initiative is to focus on job creation and skill enhancement in certain prominent sectors of the economy with a view to producing high quality standards with minimal impact on the environment. This paper attempts to make an analysis of numerous issues and challenges for HR system in a manufacturing sector in general and Make in India moment backdrop specifically.
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Name : Digitalization in the midst of Digital Division in India
Author : Debidutta Pattnaik
Abstract :
The bequest of electronic commerce is gaining ground, achieving unprecedented growth and widespread popularity all across the globe and in India. Barring aside the initial jittery start that resulted primarily due to the lack of trust; consumers around the world and in India are more experienced and confident today, relying heavily on electronic trade and commerce over the traditional mediums. Even the senior denizens are opening up to digital mediums. Though the percentage of online consumers are comparatively less; in 2013, Asia Pacific emerged as the strongest ecommerce region in the world with sales of around 567.3 billion USD recording a growth of over 45% over 2012, ranking ahead of Europe (482.3 billion USD) and North America (452.4 billion USD). The e-com business in India is recording impressive growth over these years and the growth rate doubled in 2015 vis-a-vis the previous year. Consumer behaviours are changing drastically in the era of digital reformation. Dynamics of the market, marketing opportunities, social behaviour etc. have changed the way business is done in this fast developing nation. Not only commerce, digitalization is also influencing social behaviour and Governance. In fact, there is a growing notion to the vision of digitalizing India with phenomenal progress in the areas of apps and portals development for the dissemination of information and delivery of high-value public services over the internet. India is home to the largest Public Distribution System in the world, and e-pds is a revolution in enhancing transparency and eliminating pilferages in the system. Currently, the state of Andhra Pradesh is leading the race. At this juncture, inadequate infrastructure and digital illiteracy are major impediments in the paths of progressive digitalization as majority of India is yet to taste the first-fruits of digital revolution!
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