Imapct factor(SJIF): 6.56
The Influence of Organizational Citizenship Behavior on Intension to Quit Among Service Sector Employees: Investigating the Mediating Role of Affective Commitment
Dr. Sapna Premchandani
Associate Professor, (Management)
S.R.G.P. Gujarati Professional Institute (DAVV),
Vijay Nagar, Indore.
Dr. Manish Sitlani
Head, School of Law,
Devi Ahilya University,
Takshila Campus, Khandwa Road,
This study investigates the extent to which affective commitment mediates the relationship between citizenship behavior (OCB) and intention to quit the organization. Affective commitment is examined as a mediator between OCB dimensions such as Altruism, Sportsmanship, Courtesy, Civic Virtue and intention to leave the organization. A structured questionnaire was used to collect the data from 450 service sector employees. The main purpose of this study was to propose and test a research model to have a better understanding of the connection between OCB and intention to quit through the mediating role of affective commitment. Data was analyzed through CFA, SEM and Mediation analysis. Results of the study indicated that proposed structural model was found to be fit and mediation analysis indicated that affective commitment did not mediates the effect of altruism on intention to quit the organization, whereas sportsmanship produced significant indirect effect with full mediation. Further, affective commitment partially mediates the effect of civic virtue and courtesy on intention to quit the current organization.
Keywords: OCB dimensions, Altruism, Sportsmanship, Courtesy, Civic Virtue and intention to quit, affective commitment etc.
With increased business rivalry and competition, skillful, competent and efficient employees are in high demand. This demand is practically good for employees, but very dangerous for organizations, as organizations are facing high rate of employee turnover. Employees’ turnover has been considered an important issue (Kim et al., 2010), as huge costs are associated with it. Robbins (1995) noticed that cost of employee turnover varies from 1.2 to 2 times higher than the yearly pay of that employee. Employees’ turnover not only causes high costs but also decreases employees’ morale, which eventually reduces organizational effectiveness and efficiency. (Davidson, Timo and Wang, 2010; Simon and Hinkin, 2001). It is why; turnover of employees’ has become one of the important topics and has a great significance in the area of human resource management (Dickerson, 2009; Alonso and O’Neill, 2009; Lam, Lo and Chan, 2002).
Total worth of any service organization can be evaluated through the kind of people it has. Successful organizations require flexible employees with positive attitude to work beyond their expectations. It is OCB. Citizenship behaviors are important for the organizational effectiveness but, by definition these are not included in formal job descriptions Podsakoff et al., (2000). Porter et al. (1974) defined organizational commitment as an emotional attachment with the organization, characterized by an intention to remain in it. Commitment reduces the employee’s intentions to leave the organization, Mathieu et al (1990) and promote the innovative behaviors in the organization (Ng, T.W., D.C. Feldman and S.S. Lam, 2010) by increasing the individual’s performance (Yousef, D.A., 2000). The relationship between OCB and employee retention (Intention to quit and actual turnover) has been studied by many scholars in the field of OB (Chen et al. 1998; Koys 2001; Chen 2005; Mossholder, Settoon and Hanagan 2005; Krishnan and Singh 2010) and organizational commitment is a good predictor of OCB (Gasic & Pagon, 2004; Dickinson, 2009). However, individual impact of forms of OCB on intention to leave through mediating role of affective commitment remains largely under-researched. The indirect effects of organization citizenship behaviors on intention to quit transmitted through affective commitment have not been examined extensively in the literature.
The above identified gap provided the basis for this research work to investigate the citizenship behavior of service sector employees and its effect on intension to quit the organization directly and through the mediating role of affective commitment.
Organization Citizenship Behavior
Organizational citizenship behaviors (OCB) are informal but beneficial behaviors displayed by workmen in organizations. OCB is beneficial to both, organization and workman in many ways, Polat (2007). OCBs are widespread, prevalent and common forms of behavior in the work environment such as providing help and support to a coworker, helping a newly recruited member of staff to settle into the organization, demonstrating considerable degree of adaptability by tolerating unnecessary or unreasonable requests, offering innovative ideas to organizations, working extra hours at the time of need or protecting the image of the organization, etc. It also improves the quality of service, increases the efficiency and the performance of the organization whereas it reduces the costs. Borman, (2004) defined OCB as active participation in events, procedures or actions that are not formally a part of the job description, but that do good to the whole organization.
Dimensions of Organization Citizenship Behavior:
In the current study, researchers consider four distinct elements constituting the notion of OCB.
Altruism: Smith, et al (1983) defined altruism as discretionary behavior where an employee willingly helping others to complete his or her task under unusual circumstances to increase group efficiency, or preventing the happening of work related problems.
Civic virtue: Deluga, (1998) defined civic virtue as the willingness of the employees in participating in the; political life and supporting the administrative function of the organization. It is referring to the duty of the employees to engage in the life of the firm such as attending meetings and functions and voluntarily serve on committees (Organ, 1988).
Courtesy: Courtesy includes behaviors, which focus on the prevention of problems and take the necessary step to reduce the consequences of that difficulty in the near future. In other words, a kind of behavior where one employee encourages other demoralized workers who have depressed or negative feelings for their professional growth and development. (Podsakoff et al., 2000) found that employees who show courtesy would reduce intergroup differences and ultimately diminishes the time to resolve conflict.
Sportsmanship: Organ (1988) defined sportsmanship as the warm behavior of tolerating the probable difficulties that are obvious part of nearly all organizational setting. Podsakoff and MacKenzie (1997) revealed that good sportsmanship would boost the morale and motivation of the work group and consequently decrease employee turnover.
The Mediator: Affective Commitment
Employees achieve high level of performance when they experience a strong association with their organization (Fry, 2003; Malik et al., 2011). Affective commitment refers to strong and positive feelings of an employee to maintain its membership with the organization. It tells an employee’s special connection and identification with the organization that reflects a strong belief in the values and goals of organization. Meyer and Allen (1991) noted that, “The affective commitment reflects a desire to maintain relationship in the organization that develops over the time as the result of work experiences that create feelings of comfort and competence.” Porter, Seers, Mowday and Boulian, (1974) emphasizes affective commitment as an individual’s identification and involvement in the organization. This affecting attachment is positive in nature and appears to derive from work settings such as equality, fairness and support from superiors and colleagues, as well as value for individual worth and contributions” (Staples and Barlett, 2003).
Intention to Quit
A turnover intention is a psychological decision existing between an employee’s approach with reference to a job whether to continue or leave the job (Jacobs and Roodt, 2007). In other words, it represents intentional, conscious and deliberate willingness to depart from the organization (Tett and Meyer, 1993). Research findings have confirmed a strong link between turnover intentions and actual turnover. Vandenberg & Nelson (1999) found poor work environment, leadership style, salary system, and job dissatisfaction etc as some of the causes of employee turnover. From the existing literature it was found that researchers have examined turnover intention rather than actual employee turnover. Employees who are dissatisfied with their current jobs will carry negative attitudes for their jobs and positive attitudes to quit the job (Rastgar et al., 2012). If employees think they have good skill and various job alternatives they will likely foster intention to quit. It has been found to be a strong predictor/ antecedent to turnover (Helman, 1997).
Organizational citizenship behavior and affective commitment
OCB has been widely studied and found to affect the overall organizational effectiveness (Walz & Niehoff, 1996). Organ (1997) has defined OCB as the discretionary behaviors that are not directly or explicitly recognized by the formal reward system but promotes the effective functioning of the organization. These are the behaviors that extend beyond the employee’s normal job duties. Different researchers have explored the relationship between organization commitment and citizenship behavior. Gautam, Van Dick & Wagner (2001); identified OCB as one of the discretionary behaviors which has been linked to OC. Out of affective, normative and continuance commitment, affective commitment has gained much attention in the behavioral studies (Allen & Meyer, 1990). Affective commitment refers to emotional attachment to, identification with and involvement in the organization (Meyer & Allen, 1987). It develops on the basis of psychologically pleasing experiences. Experiences that employees find particularly satisfying are likely to increase affective commitment; those are not satisfying might reduce feeling of attachment toward organization. Meyer et al. (2000) found strong positive correlation between affective commitment and OCB. According to Mowday, Porter, & Steers, (1982), highly committed employees are ready to contribute something extra in organizational interests. This contribution may be through extra-role and discretionary behaviors which are beneficial to the organization (Kidwell, Mossholder, & Bennett, 1997). Accordingly, previous literature, Chen, Hui, & Sego, 1998; Meyer, et al., (2002) postulated that affective commitment has positive association with extra-role behaviors. Williams & Anderson, (1991) found no relationship between organizational commitment and OCB. Yutaka –Ueda (2011) indicate that affective commitment is predictor of sportsmanship and helping behavior of OCB, whereas effect of affective commitment on civic virtue, an OCB component is moderated by collectivism. Rehan & Islam (2013) reported that affective commitment is positively associated with consciousness and altruism, facets of OCB. Bolon (1997) showed that affective commitment is significant commitment in terms of explaining distinctive variance in OCB. From this point, researcher suggested the following hypothesis
H1: Organizational Citizenship Behaviors are positively and significantly related to affective commitment of employees working in service sector.
H1a: Altruism is positively and significantly related to affective commitment.
H1b: Civic Virtue is positively and significantly related to affective commitment.
H1c: Sportsmanship is positively and significantly related to affective commitment.
H1d: Courtesy is positively and significantly related to affective commitment.
Organizational Citizenship Behavior and Intention to Leave
Attracting and sustaining competitive employees is one of the big challenges in service sector. When OCBs are prevalent, appreciated, valued and continued within an organization, good and competitive employees can be retained (Podsakoff, MacKenzie, Paine and Bachrach 2000). To overcome employee turnover intentions, Podsakoff et al., (2000) opined that organizations should provide training to their employees and motivate them to work beyond their obligations. Getting employees motivated to go beyond their formal tasks and duties should be self-initiated and it is known as citizenship behavior (Organ, 1988). High level of OCB shown by employees help the organizations to achieve the goal of efficiency, as these employees not only work for their assigned tasks but are ready to put added efforts, by helping other, (Organ, 1990). Several researchers have indicated that employees’ high OCB reduces their intentions to leave the organization (e.g. Podsakoff et al., 2009; Pare and Tremblay, 2007; Coyne and Ong, 2007). Chen et al. (1998) point out that employee with high level of OCB is likely to promote group attractiveness and cohesiveness and then decrease turnover intention’. This leads to assuming the following relationship
H2: OCB dimensions are negatively and significantly related to intention to quit the organization.
H2a: Altruism is negatively and significantly related to the intention to quit the organization.
H2b: Civic Virtue is negatively and significantly related to the intention to quit the organization.
H2c: Sportsmanship is negatively and significantly related to the intention to quit the organization.
H2d: Courtesy is negatively and significantly related to the intention to quit the organization.
OCB, Affective commitment and Intention to Quit
The affective commitment, a desire to continue relationship with the organization that develops over time, as the result of positive work experiences that generate feelings of comfort and personnel competence. This construct of organization commitment has gained more attention because of its negative relationship with absenteeism, employee turnover and organizational commitment (Kuruuzum et al 2008). DeConinck and Bachmann (2011) concluded that higher level of organizational commitment leads to lower levels of intention to quit among marketing managers. Many of the researchers found inverse relationship between organizational commitment and turnover intention, Maheshwari and Maheshwari (2012); Hussain and Asif (2012). Similarly, it is suggested that, improving organizational commitment among the workforce reduces likelihood of intention to leave and vice versa. In short, employee who is committed to his/her job feels more committed to stay with no or less intention to quit the employer. This component of commitment is seen as “the most beneficial in enhancing organizational effectiveness” (Zeidan, 2006). This point makes researcher to frame the following hypotheses
H3: Affective commitment significantly mediates the effect of OCB dimensions on intention to quit the current employer.
H3a: Affective commitment significantly mediates the effect of altruism on intention to quit the current employer.
H3b: Affective commitment significantly mediates the effect of civic virtue on intention to quit the current employer.
H3c: Affective commitment significantly mediates the effect of sportsmanship on intention to quit the current employer.
H3d: Affective commitment significantly mediates the effect of courtesy on intention to quit the current employer.
To test the above mentioned hypotheses, a survey tool, questionnaire was used to collect the primary data finally from 450 executives working in service industry in Indore and nearby geographical areas, who were selected on random basis.
Tools for data collection
The standard measures were taken from the relevant literature, validated across a large number of studies. It comprised of 4 sections. The first part comprised of demographic attributes of the employees. The second part deals with “OCB scale”. For this study OCB is being measured by four OCB domains that are altruism, civic virtue, courtesy and sportsmanship. It is the “OCB scale” developed by Podsakoff and MacKenzie (1989) which is originally based on the five dimensions of OCB by Organ (1988).
Affective Commitment: This seven item scale is adapted from Meyer and Allen’s (1997) three-component model for the measurement of organizational commitment.
Intention to quit: The three-item scale adapted from Lichtenstein et. al. (2004) was used to assess employee desire to leave the organization.
All the participants were requested to evaluate themselves on 5-point Likert scale ranging from strongly disagree=1 to strongly agree=5.
Amos 21.0 was used to analyze the data. Confirmatory Factor Analysis was done to test the measurement model and was validated. Further, SEM, mediation analysis was applied to test hypothesized relationship between independent and dependent variables.
The research structure
The main aim of the current work was to study the mediating role of affective commitment between OCB and Intention to quit. In the current study, there are four domains of the organizational citizenship behaviors, such as altruism, courtesy, sportsmanship and civic virtue as independent variables, affective commitment, a mediator and Intention to quit as dependent variable.
CFA: Measurement model Reliability and Validity
Measurement model fitness:
A six-factor measurement model was constructed to validate the scales and CFA was done to assess measurement model. CFA results indicated that the model is consistent with data and the fit indices were within the acceptable ranges: (Chi-square = 556.341, p=.000, df= 323), specifically, Chi2/df = 1.722, GFI = .919, AGFI = .898, CFI=.976, and RMSEA = .040.
In addition to model-data fit, item reliability (SFLs), composite reliability (construct reliability), average variance extracted (AVE), convergent validity and discriminant validity were examined.
Table-1, shows that Composite Reliability (CR) values for Altruism, Civic Virtue, Sportsmanship, Courtesy, affective commitment and intention to quit were found to be highly satisfactory 0.99, 0.99, 0.98, 0.99, 0.97 and 0.98 respectively, which exceeded the recommended cutoff value of 0.7; and is reasonable enough to conclude that the scales are reliable. AVE values were found to be greater than 0.7 which provides empirical support for the convergent validity.
Measurement model: Discriminant validity
Table: 2 Test for Discriminant validity
Table: 2 show that Discriminant validity is established. It is achieved if the Square Root of AVE is larger than the correlation coefficients. Value on the diagonal of the correlation matrix is Square Root of AVE.
The Structural Model
A structural model was proposed where altruism, civic virtue, sportsmanship, courtesy were taken as exogenous variables, affective commitment as a mediator and intention to quit as endogenous variable. Further, mediation analysis was done to study the direct and indirect effect on intention to quit the employer.
Goodness of fit: Structural model
Table-3 shows estimation of structural model in terms of goodness and badness of fit. The proposed structural model was found to fit the data satisfactorily as all the fit indices were well within the acceptable ranges.
Table-4 shows the relationship between the variables under study.
H1 proposed a positive and significant correlation between OCB dimensions and affective commitment.
H1a hypothesized a positive correlation between altruism and affective commitment of employees working in service sector. As shown in table-4, correlation coefficient for altruism and affective commitment is found to be significant, 0.56** at .01 level and thus H1a was supported. It may mean that employee willingness to help their superiors, colleagues or subordinates with altruistic intention lead to develop high emotional attachment with the organization. Civic virtue is positively and significantly correlated with (0.65**) affective commitment, hence supported stated hypothesis 1b. Further, Hypothesis 1c proposed that sportsmanship is positively and significantly related to affective commitment. It can be seen from table-4 that Correlation between sportsmanship and affective commitment is found to be moderate (0.53**) and thus supported the stated hypothesis. Furthermore, nature of relationship between courtesy and affective commitment in terms of coefficients of correlations was found to be 0.57**, (Table-4) and reveals a moderate amount of positive relationships- which speaks in favor of the acceptance of H1d. Therefore H1d namely courtesy is positively and significantly related to affective commitment is accepted.
H2 proposed a negative and significant relationship between OCB dimensions and intention to quit.
H2a hypothesized a negative and significant relationship between altruism and intention to quit the organization. Findings of correlation coefficient (Table-4) for altruism and intention to quit was found to be significant, -0.75 at 0.01 levels and thus H2a stands accepted. High level of inverse relationship (-0.86**) was found between civic virtue and intention to quit the current employer and thus retained the above stated H2b. In addition to this, H2c predicted a negative relationship between sportsmanship and intention to leave. Results of correlation (Table-4) indicated that sportsmanship is negatively associated with intention to leave, (-0.68**) and therefore retained H2c. Finally, significant relationship was found between courtesy and intention to leave, (-0.91**), therefore, H2d, namely, Courtesy is negatively and significantly related to the intention to quit the organization was accepted.
H3 proposed that affective commitment significantly mediates the effect of OCB dimensions on intention to quit the current organization.
To test the above mentioned hypotheses, a structural model was proposed and validated. Mediation analysis was done to have more accurate explanation of the causal effect of organization citizenship behavior (antecedent) on intention to leave by focusing on the mediating role of affective commitment that make causal chain possible. Direct and indirect test was applied to know partial/full mediation of AC between OCB and Intention to quit.
Testing for mediation in AMOS
Direct effects first:
For mediation analysis, researchers used Baron and Kenny’s (1986) three-step procedure which requires fulfilling following three conditions:
Step-I, the independent variable(s) should be significantly related to the mediator variable, in the current study, OCB dimensions are positively and significantly related to AC, (Table-4).
Step-II, the independent variable should be significantly related to the dependent variable, OCB dimensions are negatively and significantly related to Intention to Quit, ((Table-4).
Step-III, the significant relationship between the independent variable and the dependent variable should significantly lessen or become insignificant when the mediator is added to the model, (Table-5).
Mediation: If indirect
effect is significant i.e. < 0.05 and direct is insignificant. Partial
Mediation: if direct
and indirect effect is significant i.e.
< 0.05. No
Mediation: if indirect
is > 0.05 i.e. insignificant
Full Mediation: If indirect effect is significant i.e. < 0.05 and direct is insignificant.
Partial Mediation: if direct and indirect effect is significant i.e. < 0.05.
No Mediation: if indirect is > 0.05 i.e. insignificant
Table-5 shows the path coefficients for the mediation analysis
H3a predicted that Affective commitment significantly mediates the effect of altruism on intention to quit the current employer.
Table-5 shows that p value of 0.955 is insignificant for the direct effect of altruism on Intention to quit. Further, indirect effect of altruism on Intention to quit through affective commitment is again found to be insignificant (0.656). Thus, results of mediation analysis indicated that altruism did not meet the requirements mentioned by Baron and Kenny (1986) and produce any effect (direct/indirect) on Intention to quit. Hence H3a was not supported.
H3b hypothesized that affective commitment significantly mediates the effect of civic virtue on intention to quit the current employer.
For testing H3b, results (Table-5) showed that the effect of civic virtue on intention to quit is partially mediated by affective commitment, as direct (-0.340) and indirect effects (-0.274) were found to be significant. Hence H3b is partially supported.
H3c: Affective commitment significantly mediates the effect of sportsmanship on intention to quit the current employer.
Table-5 shows that direct effect of sportsmanship on intention to quit is insignificant, whereas indirect effect (-0.217) through affective commitment is significant at 0.001 level. Therefore H3c is fully supported.
H3d: Affective commitment significantly mediates the effect of courtesy on intention to quit the current employer.
Further, results of mediation analysis (table-5) showed that courtesy not only produced direct and significant effect on intention to quit but indirect effect through affective commitment was also found to be significant. Hence H3d is partially supported.
As OCB and OC are two inseparable constructs. The current study intended to examine the mediating effect of affective commitment between OCB and intention to leave the current employer. Large number of researchers studied relationship between OCB and OC and found OCB as a positive outcome of a committed workforce, (Organ and Ryan, 1995; Gautam, Van Dick & Wagner, 2001) whereas (Rehan & Islam, 2013) reported organizational commitment as an important antecedent of organizational citizenship behaviors. But in this study researchers examined whether citizenship behaviors help employees to develop their affection and association with the current employer with less or no intention to leave the organization.
Relationship between OCB and AC
Affective commitment is one of the work related attitudes which helps an individual to link its identity with the organization. Van Dyne et. al, 1995 conceptualized affective commitment as a strong belief in acceptance of an organization goal and desire to continue its membership with the organization. First, the study investigated the relationship between altruism, civic virtue, sportsmanship, courtesy, affective commitment. Results of the study revealed that organizational citizenship behaviors were found to be positively associated with affective commitment. This confirmed our H1. These findings seem rational and consistent with the findings of Yilmaz and Bokeoglu (2008); Kilic (2013) who reported a positive relationship between affective commitment and organizational citizenship behaviors. However, Williams and Anderson, (1991); Shore and Wayne, (1993) found reverse results i.e. no correlation between AC and OCB.
Relationship between OCB and Intention to quit
Second, the findings support for the H2 that proposed a significant negative relationship between OCB dimensions and intention to quit. The results revealed that there is high level of negative relationship between courtesy and intention to quit followed by civic virtue, altruism and sportsmanship. This finding seems to be in congruence with the findings of Chen et al., (1998) who reported that employees with high level of organizational citizenship behaviors, such as altruism, sportsmanship and conscientiousness were less likely to leave the current organization. Similar findings were obtained by Khalid et al., (2009; 2013) that helping behavior, sportsmanship; patience and civic virtue were negatively related to turnover intention.
Role of Affective Commitment as mediator
Third, The indirect effects of citizenship behaviors of employee transmitted through affective commitment have not been examined expansively in the literature. The current study hypothesized that affective commitment mediates the effect of OCB dimensions on intention to quit the current organization. Results of mediation analysis indicated that altruism did not produce any effect (direct/indirect) on Intention to quit. This finding suggests that helpfulness of employees did not help to develop the emotional attachment with the organization which in turn leads to reduce the intention to leave the current employer. The relationship between civic virtue and intention to quit was partially mediated by affective commitment. This result suggests that employees who keenly and freely participate in the political and administrative life of the firm will be more likely to have high affective commitment, which in turn leads to decrease their intension to quit the organization. This finding is consistent with previous research (Saif et al. 2015), who reported Civic virtue, an attribute of the employees OCB are strongly correlated with affective commitment. Further, it is again supported by the findings of Mutharasi, Rajesh and Karthick, (2014) who stated that people with civic virtue behavior are committed. Sportsmanship, a facet of OCBs, is defined as “an employee’s readiness to perform organizational tasks by ignoring small inconveniences with a desire not to complain” (Organ, 1990b). The effect of sportsmanship on intention to leave is fully mediated by affective commitment. Employees who have higher level of sportsmanship report higher level of affective commitment but lower level of turnover intentions. This effect is important and suggests that when individual employees have emotional bonding with their organization as a result of perceived sportsmanship, they desires to remain in the organization with very less or no intention to leave. Courtesy, a facet of OCBs, focuses on the prevention of interpersonal problems and efforts to minimize the effects of that problem in the future. The findings also suggest that effect of courtesy on intention to quit is partially mediated by affective commitment. This finding seems reasonable and suggests that courtesy not only affect directly to intention to quit but also is mediated by affective commitment.
Conclusion and Recommendations
Human capital is one of the important factors to gain and sustain competitive advantage. Organizational success requires committed employees, their willingness to perform extra role behaviors and desire to continue their membership with the organization. So employees’ intention to quit the current organization has become one of the major interests of the researchers (Lambert, Hogana, and Bartona, 2001). At a glance, the current study showed some important findings. It shows that there is significant positive relationship between OCBs and AC but inverse relationship between OCBs and intention to quit. Further, it verified the proposed structural model and found that altruism did not produce any effect (direct/indirect) on Intention to quit. It has also been noted that if employees do not receive help from others they tend to avoid helping others which in turn affect their emotional attachment with the organization and difficult to stay. Thus managers should take necessary steps such as counsel them to change their attitude that promotes team spirit, mutual trust and timely help. As per the findings, effect of civic virtue and courtesy on intention to quit is partially mediated by affective commitment. Despite of these findings organizations should provide their employees with platform to participate voluntarily in organizational governance. If employees receive such kind of support from immediate superior/managers they will find themselves strongly associated with the organization and try to avoid negative consequences of problems and protect the image and reputation of organization in public. Finally, the effect of sportsmanship on intention to leave is fully mediated by affective commitment. So it is recommended that managers should maintain the environment where employees continuously show their sportsmanship and stay with the current organization irrespective of adverse or difficult conditions.
Drawing a sample from service sector, this study explored that affective commitment plays a significant mediating role in generating the desired impact of dimensions of OCB, including Civic Virtue, Sportsmanship and courtesy, on intention to quit, thereby suggesting the employers/organizations to take suitable steps for generating affective commitment amongst the employees. This will help these employers to retain their human capital for longer terms, thereby realizing the desired objectives.
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