Imapct factor(SJIF): 6.56
A Refereed Monthly International Journal of Management
INTERNAL MARKETING, EMPLOYEE JOB SATISFACTION AND EMPLOYEE ENGAGEMENT: A CASE OF J&K BANK
Ms. Rajani Kumari Sarangal.
UGC NET, JRF, Ph.D. Research Scholar,
The Business School,
University of Jammu.
Ms. Meenakshi Nargotra
UGC NET, JRF, Ph.D. Research Scholar,
The Business School, University of Jammu India,
The present study aims to investigate the influence of internal marketing on employee job satisfaction and impact of employee job satisfaction on employee engagement. Data was collected from the different branches of J&K bank operating in Jammu city. Data was collected through self-administered survey from 182 respondents. The reliability of the measures is checked by calculating the value of Cronbach’s alpha. Correlation analysis indicates the relation between internal marketing, employee job satisfaction and employee engagement. Further, regression analysis is done to check the impact of the Internal marketing on employee job satisfaction and the impact of employee job satisfaction on employee engagement. Finding support the hypothesis that internal marketing practices have positive influence on job satisfaction among employee and employee job satisfaction positively influences employee engagement. This paper contributes to existing knowledge by studying various internal marketing practices in banking organization, which have a direct impact on employee job satisfaction and employee engagement. Thus, the result of this study will provide practitioners with better insights into innovative internal marketing practices that could elevate job satisfaction among employee and ultimately engagement of employees.
Keywords: Internal Marketing Practices, Employee Job Satisfaction, Employee Engagement Banking Sector.
Service sector is the fastest growing sector, globally contributing more to the output and employing more people than any other sector. In the present era, service industry has become a key to success in the fiscal progressions of countries worldwide. But on the same time service organizations are faced with more competitive and rapidly shifting business environment. Globalization and privatization have led to an extensive increase in competition among organizations .Banking sector is the most thriving sector within the service industry as it plays a catalytic role in socio economic development of every country. This is especially true for developing countries like India. But like many other service organizations Banking organizations are facing challenges on all sides such as a rapid innovation, changing market, new technologies, economic uncertainties, fierce competition, demanding customers and their expectations. Being a part of service industry, the customer focus and customer service is the distinctive factors for the banks. To satisfy their customers, banks must have customer oriented employees. As the employees in service organization have direct contact with their customers. So, in order to be successful in such an industry, organizations have to first satisfy their employee and engage them in their job that will ultimately lead to customer satisfaction. So, the concept of Internal Marketing crop up here. Berry, Hensel, and Burke (1976), first defined internal marketing as “employee as internal customer and job as product” .According to Berry (1981, 1984) “it is imperative for an organization to view employees as internal customers, view jobs as internal products, and then endeavor to offer internal products that satisfy the needs and wants of these internal customers while addressing the objectives of the organization”. In past decades, satisfied employees, contented with their work experience, was enough for success. But in today’s, innovative and competitive business environment simply satisfied and stable employees are not sufficient to bring necessary business results. Satisfied employees may just meet the work demands, but this will not lead to higher performance. In order to compete effectively, employers need to go beyond satisfaction - employers must do their best to inspire their employees to apply their full potential and capabilities to their work. Therefore, modern organizations expect their employees to be full of enthusiasm and show initiative at work, they want them to take responsibility for their own development, strive for high quality and performance, be energetic and dedicated to what they do – in other words companies want their employees to be fully engaged. So it is imperative for service organizations to adopt such pioneer strategies through which employees can be engaged in their work /organization .This can better be done through understanding and implementing internal marketing practices within the organizations which will definitely leads to employee job satisfaction and employee engagement. So, the study aims to examine the impact of Internal Marketing on Employee job satisfaction and impact of employee job satisfaction on employee engagement in context of banking Industry. Findings of this research will prove to be useful for organizations in formulating appropriate Internal Marketing strategies for their organizations which will lead to achieve higher job satisfaction that further will help in engaging employee within the organization.
Review of Literature
Internal Marketing (IM)
The concept of Internal Marketing was first introduced by L.L Berry in 1981. He viewed “employees as customers’’ of organization and same as like external customers, internal customers needs have to be satisfied. He defined internal marketing as “a management philosophy, viewing employees as internal customers and viewing jobs as internal products that satisfy the needs and wants of these internal customers while addressing the objectives of the organization”. According to (Woodruffe, 1995) Internal Marketing is treating both employees and customers with equal importance through proactive programs to achieve the objectives of the organization. Rafiq and Ahmed (2000) defined internal marketing as a planned effort, using a marketing-like approach, to overcome organizational change resistance, align, motivate, inter-functionally co-ordinate and integrate employees towards the effective implementation of corporate and functional strategies, in order to deliver customer satisfaction through a process of creating motivated and customer orientated employees. By reviewing the IM literature it is understood that “to have satisfied customers, the firm must also have satisfied employees”. Satisfied employees create satisfied customers who are more loyal and therefore create more profit for the company (Ahmed and Rafiq, 2003).
Employee Job Satisfaction
According to (Locke, 1976) Job satisfaction describes how much an employee likes/dislikes his/her job and various aspects of it. Job satisfaction reflects an employee’s feelings and beliefs, and develops through cognitive, emotional and affective reactions to the job itself and its dimensions (Locke, 1976; Organ and Near, 1985; Judge and Ilies, 2004; Rich et al., 2010).
LaLopa (1997) indicated that when employees felt satisfied with their work, they were more willing to be committed to their resorts and to stay longer in their jobs than those who were dissatisfied. Porter (1962) opined Job satisfaction as the degree to which job needs are fulfilled and how much of this fulfillment is perceived by an employee. According to (Weiss, 2002) Job satisfaction is a positive (or negative) evaluative judgment one makes about one’s job or job situation. Hence job satisfaction is not just an emotional state or an affective response but an evaluation of an emotional state. So, job satisfaction is a combination of both what an employee feels (affect) about his/her job and what he/she thinks (cognition) about the various aspects of his/her job.
Kahn (1990) offers an empirically tested multidimensional motivational framework reflecting latent conditions of an employee’s willingness to engage. He first introduced the concept of engagement in workplace settings and defines employee engagement as “the harnessing of organization members’ selves to their work roles. In engagement, people employ and express themselves physically, cognitively, and emotionally during role performances”. The cognitive aspect of employee engagement concerns employees’ beliefs about the organization, its leaders and working conditions. The emotional aspect concerns how employees feel about each of those three factors and whether they have positive or negative attitudes toward the organization and its leaders. The physical aspect of employee engagement concerns the physical energies exerted by individuals to accomplish their roles. Thus according to Kahn (1990), engagement means to be psychologically as well as physically present when occupying and performing an organizational role. Rich et al. (2010) simply stated that engagement involves investing one’s hand, head, and heart (physical, cognitive, and emotional energy, respectively) during a role performance. Schaufeli et al. (2006) opined employee engagement is a work-related state of mind involving vigor, dedication, and absorption. Vigor refers to high level of energy and mental resilience while working; being ambitious enough to work hard, even in difficult situations (Taipale et al.,2011). Dedication is characterized by a sense of significance, enthusiasm, inspiration, pride, and challenge at work (Cole et al., 2011). Absorption is characterized by being fully concentrated and happily engrossed in one’s work, whereby time passes quickly and one has difficulties with detaching oneself from work. It also indicates that a person concentrates on his work and finds it rewarding (Maslach et al., 2001). Saks (2006) identifies two types of employee engagement i.e. (a) Job Engagement, which is the level of employee’s commitment and dedication to his job role and (b) Organizational Engagement, which is the level of employee commitment and loyalty to their organization. According to Harter et al. (2002) employee engagement is defined as “the individual’s involvement and satisfaction as well as enthusiasm for work”.
Internal Marketing and Employee Job Satisfaction
Preston and Steel (2002) wrote about issues related to Internal Marketing and according to them recruiting, training, development, team work and motivating staff are some of the important variables of Internal Marketing (IM) that has influence on employee job satisfaction. Kazemzadeh and Bashiri (2005) also explored the relationship between Internal Marketing and Employee Job Satisfaction. As cited by Rajyalakshmi and Kameswari (2012) a study in the retail stores find out the impact of Internal Marketing factors on job motivation and satisfaction .The study revealed that working conditions and hours, hygiene and sanitation, rest rooms, support from superior and attitude of colleagues have the highest influence on job motivation and satisfaction. Panigyrakis and Theodoridis (2009) in their study reveals that vision, internal communication, teamwork, quality of job, care about employee, reward system, feedback, internal procedures and policies, internal customer relationship with colleagues, senior staff and other departments play vital role in Employee Job Satisfaction and their performance. Kameswari and Rajyalakshmi (2012) conducted a study in SBI and found that Internal Marketing dimensions (i.e. work content, training, recognition, work environment, superior support, co-worker) had a significant impact on the Employee Job Satisfaction. Esfahani et al. (2013) examines the impact of internal marketing on staff job satisfaction in private insurance company in Isfahan city and results of the study revealed significant positive effect of Internal Marketing on personnel’s job satisfaction.
Employee Job Satisfaction and Employee Engagement
According to (Saks 2006; Simpson 2009) job satisfaction is one of the key attitudes related to work engagement. Further, Saks (2006) considers Job satisfaction is corner stone to employee engagement. Moreover studies conducted by Salanova , Llorens and Schaufeli (2011) and Yalabik et al. (2013) argue that job satisfaction is a predictor of work engagement. Further (Saks 2006; Simpson 2009; Yalabik et al., 2013) found a positive relationship between job satisfaction and engagement.
Literature review indicates that job satisfaction is an antecedent of work engagement. It has been found that employees who are satisfied with their jobs become engaged in their work for several reasons. First, the view of job satisfaction as an antecedent of work engagement is supported by SET. Employee satisfaction is continuously shaped by exchange relationships within the organization. High exchange employee–organization relationships result in high job satisfaction and organizational commitment (e.g. Conway and Briner, 2005; Zhao et al., 2007; Tekleab and Chiaburu, 2011). Second, work engagement was originally conceptualized as opposite to burnout construct including three-dimension namely exhaustion, cynicism and inefficacy (Bakker and Demerouti, 2008). So work engagement and burnout share similar antecedents. Various studies identify vigorous associations between job satisfaction and burnout, where low job satisfaction increases burnout ( Bacharach, Bamberger and Conley, 1991; Lee and Ashforth, 1993; Lee and Ashforth, 1996; Maslach, Jackson and Leiter, 1996; Spector, 1997). Thirdly, engagement is a motivational concept. It is related to how individuals physically, cognitively and emotionally connect to their jobs (Kahn, 1990; Rich et al., 2010). Satisfaction is the result of needs gratification and employees will be motivated in their jobs to the extent they fulfill their needs (Wolf, 1970). Hence, once the needs are fulfilled, i.e. the employees are satisfied with their jobs; employees are expected to become engaged with their work.
Based on the literature review, the following hypotheses have been formulated:
H1: There is a significant positive impact of internal marketing on job satisfaction among employees.
H2: There is a significant impact of employee job satisfaction on employee engagement.
Objectives of the study
From literature review it is found that an organization needs support from its employee’s performance in order to achieve its long term objective, and their performance is influenced by the employee job satisfaction and their engagement towards their job / organization. So there is need of such strategies like internal marketing practices which should be followed by organizations which boost up satisfaction as well as engagement among the banking employees.
So, through this research study we intend to scrutinize three different constructs: internal marketing, employee job satisfaction, employee engagement and their impact on each other in banking sector in the state of J&K.
The main objectives of this study are:
The research questionnaire used for primary data collection was designed on the basis of previous empirical literatures and secondary data is collected from review of literature. Structured questionnaire was used to collect the primary data. The questionnaire is divided into two sections, section A and B. Section A shows the demographic profile of respondents which include employee gender, age, marital status, designation, educational qualification, monthly income, and work experience. Section B includes items related to internal marketing, employee satisfaction and employee engagement. Each variable was measured using previously developed components of instruments that have demonstrated good psychometric properties. With regard to internal marketing, 7 items were employed to operationalize this construct. They are taken from the scale given by Awwad and Agti (2011) in “banking context”. 10 items for measuring Employee satisfaction were adopted from the study of Spector (1997) and Employee engagement was measured by 9-item taken from Schaufeli and Bakker‟s (2003) Work and Well-being Survey (UWES).
Methods of Data Collection
Data was collected from the different branches of J&K bank operating in Jammu city. The selection of the bank branches was done using the following steps:
i ) On the basis of wards Jammu city was divided into four geographical regions.
iii) Convenience sampling method is used.
The sample size is calculated according to the number of items to be used in study. (Hair et al. 2006) “Every item requires minimum 5 respondents and maximum 10 respondents”. As the study’s construct contained 26 items, so a sample size of 182 is taken for analysis. The respondents were personally contacted and they were explained the reason for the research. Out of 182 respondents, 122 questionnaires were returned .So the response rate was 67%.
To indicate the relation between internal marketing, employee job satisfaction and employee engagement Correlation analysis has been used. Further, to check the impact of the Internal marketing on employee job satisfaction and the impact of employee job satisfaction on employee engagement regression analysis is done.
Analysis and discussions
As shown in Table 1, 57.37 percent (70) of respondents, which participated in the research, were male and 42.62 percent (52) respondents were females. According to the age the largest percentage of respondents was between 31-40 years (40.16 percent), and the lowest percentage (6.55 percent) was those who are more than 50 years of age. 63.93 percent (78) of the respondents were married and rest 36.06 percent (44) was unmarried. Most respondents were Master degree holders (39.34%).The largest percent of respondents was those of income greater than 50,000 (32.78 percent).Maximum respondents were have an experience of 1-5 years (33.60 percent) .
The reliability is the extent to which a variable or a set of variables is consistent in what it intends to measure (Hair et al., 2008). So, prior to analyzing the data, reliability of the scale is determined by computing its coefficient alpha. According to Sekaran (2003), the closer the reliability coefficient gets to 1.0, the better it is, and those values over .80 are considered as good. Those values in the .70 are considered as acceptable and that reliability value less than .60 is considered to be poor. The scores of the Cronbach’s alpha for all the constructs-Internal marketing, Employee job satisfaction, and Employee engagement surpassed the threshold of 0.70 (see Table 2) .So the scales used for measurement of each construct were stable and consistent.
Further internal reliabilities of expected items were performed in the form of Cronbach’s alpha coefficient (Table 3). For the purpose of this study a cut off value adopted was 0.6 (Hair et al., 2008) lower limit of acceptability and the acceptable benchmark value of item-to-total correlation was set above 0.3 (Hair et al., 2008). Following the decision relating to the internal reliabilities of items and in line with Hair et al. (2008), the items were respecified.
Descriptive statistic of means and standard deviations were obtained from the independent and dependent variables. Table 4. shows the summary of descriptive statistics. A 5- point Likert scale (1= strongly disagree to 5= strongly agree) is used to measured the variables of study.
From the table4, it is clear that the mean value for internal marketing items ranges from 4.3525 to 3.8607. The item “Communicates its vision well to all employees” is having the highest mean value (4.3525). This indicates that respondents are agreed with the communication system within the bank. Further “Training sessions” (mean=4.3443), “Superior support” (mean=4.2459), overall mean for internal marketing statements is 4.1862 showing that employees are satisfied with the internal marketing practices running in the bank. With regard to the Employee job satisfaction mean value ranges from 4.3689 to 3.9344 and overall mean for Employee job satisfaction items is 4.1770 , indicating that employees are also satisfied with their jobs. For the Employee engagement mean value ranges from 4.4672 to 4.0246 and the overall mean value for the average of Employee engagement items is 4.2304 showing a higher engagement of employees within the bank.
Table 5 provides correlations for all study variables (Internal marketing , Employee job satisfaction and Employee engagement) to find out the degree of association between these variables .As predicted, Internal marketing is positively correlated to Employee job satisfaction (r = .662, p, 0.01) and Employee job satisfaction is positively correlated to Employee engagement (r = .703, p, 0.01).
The hypothesis testing is done through Simple regression analysis. For H1, (Table 6) R = 61.7 percent; R Square = 38 percent; Adjusted R Square = 37.5 percent. This shows that the change of Employee job satisfaction is explained 38 percent (R square = 38 percent) by the Internal marketing. Therefore, H1 is accepted i.e. there is a significant positive impact of internal marketing on job satisfaction among employees in J&K bank.
Further for H2, (Table 7) R = 70.3 percent; R Square = 49.4 percent; Adjusted R Square = 48.9 percent. This shows that the change of Employee engagement is explained 38 percent (R square = 38 percent) by the employee job satisfaction. Therefore, H2 is accepted i.e. there is a significant positive impact of internal marketing on employee engagement in J&K bank.
Many studies are conducted on three of the constructs separately .But according to our literature review there is hardly any study found related to this topic in India more specifically in the state of J&K . So our research study is an effort to overpass this gap. The present study intended to scrutinize the impact of Internal marketing on Employee job satisfaction and impact of Employee job satisfaction on Employee engagement. More precisely, we expected to identify the association between internal marketing, Employee job satisfaction and Employee engagement. The results of present study concluded that Internal marketing is positively associated with, Employee job satisfaction (r = .662, p, 0.01) and Employee job satisfaction is positively correlated to Employee engagement (r = .703, p, 0.01). Further, results shows that internal marketing significantly impact employee job satisfaction(R square = .380). The results are consistent with the results of previous studies that intention of organizations while implementing internal marketing is to motivate and satisfy employees. “Employees would feel satisfied by receiving internal marketing campaigns, as well as the related opportunities for self-actualization and self-development” (Berry, 1981; Rafiq & Pervaiz, 2000, Abdullah et al (2011); Khan et al., (2011)). Further analysis indicated that Employee job satisfaction has positive impact on Employee engagement (R Square = .494). The result of the study is similar to Gallup (2008), Scarborough (2008) and Koscec (2003). “If people feel positive about their job and various aspects of work, such as pay, supervision, or workload, that is, satisfy in their work, enable to be more motivated, and committed to help the company to achieve its objectives finally have a desire to be involved and engaged in the company” (Gallup, 2008; Scarborough, 2008 and Koscec, 2003) .Therefore, through implementation of IM practices employees will feel more supported and valued by their organization, it will develop a high satisfaction among them and accordingly, the more they will be absorbed by their tasks and do their jobs with vigor and dedication. Our results provide undeniable validation that internal marketing strategies has motivational role in increasing satisfaction level of employees and thus employee engagement.
Engaging employees and making them satisfied is important for achieving success in the highly competitive banking sector. The rapid development of banking industry enforces the service industry to ensure engagement of its employees. As the review of literature revealed, employee engagement and satisfaction is developed by various internal marketing dimensions The result suggests that, when attempting to develop employee engagement and satisfaction , managers should focus on the enhancement of internal marketing dimensions, with particular emphasis on training and development ,communication, feedback and rewards . So some of the major implications for managers are that in order to make their banks more competitive, they need to transform their employees to be customer oriented. For achieving customer-oriented behavior among the employees, banks itself needs to be employee oriented first. Under such environment, managers should be concerned about revamping employee satisfaction. Consequently, they need to build up their employee’s competence. “Internal marketing is key for developing employee’s competence” (Awwad and Agti , 2011) .On the other hand, as the finding of the study has revealed that Employee satisfaction is an antecedent to employee engagement, it suggests that Employee satisfaction directly impacts employee engagement. This entails the bank to take measures to boost satisfaction among employees; it will ultimately enhance employee engagement. So it is insinuation to JK bank that internal marketing should be adopted as a core strategy to meet employees’ demands and hence the bank goals. In the course of these intangible changes, employees will get satisfied and they will get engrossed in their jobs which will be beneficial for the bank operation and success. As the results indicates that employees are not greatly pleased with the bank’s reward system. So, it is suggested the bank should inform its employees about the standard for rewarding and should pay emphasis on linking it to their business goals which will aid in achieving higher level of overall job satisfaction.
Limitations and future research
As the present research is conducted in banking sector; so its results cannot be generalized to other industries. Future research should apply the model of present study on other banks and other service organizations and manufacturing industries. Our study is limited to only Jammu city .So, for future research bank branches operating within the state of J&K and other geographical regions can also be considered to obtain a wide generalization of the study .Since the convenience sampling is used, the sample may not totally represent the population. Future research should be conducted by using more reliable sampling technique to strengthen the generalizability of future findings. The key limitation of the study is collection of the data because the employees of the bank have very less idle time .So, the response rate is very low.
Table 1: Demographic Profiles of Sample Respondents
Table 2: Reliability Analysis Using Cronbach's Alpha
Table 3. Internal Consistency of Final Revised Structure
Table 4: Descriptive Statistics of Sample Respondents
Table 5: Correlation between Internal Marketing, Employee job satisfaction & Employee engagement
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