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Editorial Board A Refereed Monthly International Journal of Management
Prof. B. P. Sharma
(Editor in Chief)
Prof. Mahima Birla
(Group Editor)
Dr. Khushbu Agarwal
(Editor)
Ms. Asha Galundia
(Circulation Manager)

 Editorial Team

Dr. Devendra Shrimali
Dr. Dharmesh Motwani
 

Impact of Negative Portrayal of a Destination in Bollywood Movies on Viewers’ Attitude towards The Destination, Intention to Visit and Destination Image

Murtaza Hassan Itoo

                             Research Scholar, The Business School, University of Jammu,

Dr Komal Nagar

Assistant Professor, The Business School, University of Jammu,

Abstract

The present study aimed to examine the effects of negative portrayal of a destination in Bollywood movies on viewers’ attitude towards destination, intention to visit and destinations image. Experiments were conducted in which, one group of the participants were exposed to movie clip and second group of the participants were not exposed to movie clip and responses were collected by filling the questionnaire. An independent t -test was used to test the hypotheses. Results suggest that negative portrayal of a destination in films significantly influence viewers’ attitude towards the destination, intention to visit and destination image. However, results stated that the viewers’ responses were positive and favourable towards the destination depicted in the film. The results also call for more empirical studies within the effects of negative portrayal of a destination in films, such as their long-term effects on the intention to visit and destination image.

Keywords: Negative portrayal, Bollywood movies, attitude towards the destination, intention to visit, destination image

Introduction

The relationship between film portrayal of a destination and its image has always been a growing academic pursuit. Movies being a very influential medium of communication play a definite role in altering public notions and create both positive and negative impacts on destination image. In addition, previous research agrees on the effects of movies in improving or transforming the destination image in the minds of tourists (Irimiás, 2012; Larson, Lundberg, & Lexhagen, 2013). There are different academic views about the effects of films on the image of destinations. However, it is mostly acknowledged that this effect tends to be in accordance with the films content, (Rodríguez Campo, Fraiz Brea, & Rodríguez-Toubes Muñiz, 2011; Gammack, 2005; Im & Chon, 2008; Hahm & Wang, 2011).

Movies present audiences with instant and significant information about a location, form a first-time image or transform present image (Hahm, Upchurch, & Wang, 2008). So, it is evident from the existing literature that Bollywood movies are the main source for worldwide audiences to find out destination image including politics, history, life style and culture of featured destinations (Josiam, Spears, Pookulangara, Dutta, Kinley, & Duncan, 2015). However, Bollywood films portray destinations from different perspectives.

As a tourism-dependent destination, the benefits of Bollywood film production for Kashmir region in Jammu and Kashmir state is obvious. Destination image of Kashmir has been heavily affected by factors including political unrests and terrorism, together with the successive wars between Pakistan and India, thereby contributing to an image of instability and insecurity. Furthermore, Bollywood film makers have found various ways of portraying Kashmir through their movies. During the 1970’s and 1980’s the attractive valleys and scenic places of Kashmir were the favoured place for outdoor shoots, until the situation started becoming turbulent. Thereafter, from 1990 till date, it was not the stunning mountains and spouting rivers that brought them to Kashmir, but the political unrest, militancy and the sounds of blasts and gunfire, which formed the theme for several Bollywood films. Kashmir is mostly portrayed as a place of terrorism and conflict in Bollywood films from 1990 to 2016. Hence, Bollywood films within the last 25 years started portraying Kashmir valley negatively and such movies scripts are created on or encouraged by current political unrests, violent past incidents and everyday life of such hostile environments.

The existing literature in film and destination placements has generally aimed on movies that portray and feature destinations in a positive way, thereby stressing on tourist attractions and the positive experiences (Hahm & Wang, 2011; Hudson & Ritchie, 2006; Im & Chon, 2008; Iwashita, 2008). While effects of such movies are well recognized in endorsing destinations in the European countries, the effect of films with negative portrayal of a destination has remained rather incomprehensible. This effect, however, should not be neglected as such movies act as a relevant information sources about destinations featured.

 

Even though positive portrayal of destinations in films are well-understood, little consideration has been paid to the negative portrayal of destination in movies in the context of Bollywood cinema. For that reason, Loureiro and de Araujo (2015) stated the necessity for research into the particular effects of negative portrayal of destinations in movies because understanding the effects of such movies is important since they serve as an important unbiased information source for many destinations throughout the globe. Besides, negative film portrayal of a destination is mostly created on or encouraged by current political developments, history and culture since they desire to reveal existing destination life with its complications and issues including terrorism, political unrests, unemployment, poverty and violence. For these reasons, researchers highlighted the need for specific studies in this field.

To bridge this gap in literature, the current study devises an experimental setup to examine viewer’s response towards the effects of Bollywood movies on attitude towards destination, intention to travel and the image of the destination. The present work is expected to generate significant insights for the destination and tourism managers responsible for destination marketing, especially concerning their relationship with Bollywood filmmakers. The results shall be relevant for a large number of destination managers worldwide, as negative portrayal of any location or region in films may influence its destination image.

Review of Literature

Movies are perceived as less biased independent source of information than conventional advertising. Consequently, movies are regarded as reliable sources of information, and thus have a strong and long-lasting effect on destination images (Hudson & Ritchie, 2006; Rodríguez Campo et. al., 2011; Hudson, Wang, & Gil, 2011). In addition, movies play a substantial role in decision-making process and destination image formation (Shani, Wang, Hudson, & Gil, 2009; Rodríguez Campo et al., 2011) and viewers’ behaviour, such as recommend a destination or intention to revisit (Kim, 2012).

Although common belief is that exposure to movies is always beneficial, numerous studies such as Loureiro and de Araujo (2015) and Warnick, Bojanic and Siriangkul’s (2005) exposed cases in which watching films did not increase the audience’ intentions to visit the destination depicted. In addition, O’Connor, Flanagan, and Gilbert (2008); Beeton (2004); Rodríguez Campo et. al., 2011 and Loureiro and de Araujo (2015) stated that a negative film portrayal of a destination may not increase viewers visit intentions towards the destination and can stimulate the opposite effect towards destinations featured.

Negative portrayal of destination in movies

Although films and media have been known to create positive images of a destination, there are certain examples where movies have created negative image of a destination resulting in off-putting perceptions among audiences and destination images. The negative effects are more severe when different films produce contesting destination images. Films influence both the destination image (Rodríguez Campo, et al., 2011; Hudson, Wang, & Gil, 2011; Hahm & Wang, 2011) and the decision-making process of the potential tourists about their destinations (Hudson, et al., 2011).

A film that portrays a destination positively is the ultimate in media destination placement (Morgan and Pritchard, 1998). However, the effects of films that contrast great natural or cultural attractions with some negative aspects, like social or structural problems, can also be found. For example, the movie “City of God” spotlighted few of the grave characteristics of Brazilian reality: poverty, violence, the insecure and hazardous life condition on the villages and the drug trafficking, although landscape is briefly portrayed (Loureiro & de Araujo, 2015). They found that the effects of the movie on audience’s visiting intentions the destination as well as cognitive and affective image of Brazil was negative. Similarly, negative portrayal of a destination can stimulate the opposite effect and may not increase tourism in the county (Beeton, 2004; O’Connor, Flanagan, and Gilbert, 2008).

The film Haider (2014)

Haider is a 2014 Indian  film directed and produced by Vishal Bhardwaj set in the politically turbulent region of Kashmir of Jammu and Kashmir state. Haider (2014) comes to be a movie with openly political connotation. By setting the movie Haider (2014) in Kashmir region of Jammu and Kashmir state has voiced the socio-political condition and turmoil that prevailed during the last few decades (Baghira, 2015). The movie tries to portray the history and the socio-political condition of Kashmir in the state of Jammu and Kashmir throughout this film.

The movie Haider starts portraying Kashmir valley during the Kashmir conflict in 1990 and this movie has obviously set an exception in portraying Kashmir region from other famous Bollywood movies (Baghira, 2015). Moreover, it is the first Bollywood movie which has portrayed Kashmir valley in Jammu and Kashmir state with its grave socio-political realities. The political content of the movie remained very strong and being set in Kashmir region during 1995, it upholds a mirror to the armed insurgency in Kashmir valley (Chaudhuri, 2014).

Although portraying Kashmir negatively, the movie has certain amount of romance and adventure to balance its entirely negative context. In addition, the positive symbolic elements including breath-taking landscape might affect the audiences’ visiting intentions as well as destination image of Kashmir region in Jammu and Kashmir state, a probability which is examined in the current research

Attitude towards the destination

Attitude towards the destination describes “the psychological tendencies expressed by the positive or negative evaluations of tourists when engaged in certain behaviors” (Ajzen, 1991; Schiffman & Kanuk, 1994). Audiences’ attitude comprises of cognitive, affective and behavioral components. The cognitive response is the evaluation made in forming an attitude, the affective response is a psychological response expressing the preference for a destination, and the behavioral component is a verbal indication of audiences’ intention to visit the destination (Unger & Wandermann, 1985).

While previous research (Gasher, 2002; Di Persio, Horvathm, & Wobbeking, 2008) noted that film industries create a destination image by combining various factors (photography, music, video) which further influence audiences’ attitudes toward the destination (Quintal & Phau, 2015). They found that subjects who watched a romantic comedy film set in New York had significantly higher attitude towards the destination and visit intention to New York as a tourist destination than those who did not watched the movie. Further, an exposure of destination in films changes the audience attitudes towards a destination mainly by encouraging to visit the destination (Kim & Richardson, 2003). However, Woomi & Soocheong (2008) found that perceived image of a specific location affects visitors attitude toward the destination.

Existing literature also revealed that viewers’ use of a media broadcast of the events considerably improved attitude toward destination as familiarity of the destination increase (Hede, 2005). However, when destinations have an adequate level of positive attributes, visitors are expected to develop favorable attitude toward a destination while negatively perceived attributes account for unfavorable attitude toward the destination (Della Corte, 2000). Moreover, negative portrayal of a destination can produce the opposite effect and may not increase tourism (Rodríguez Campo et. al., 2011; and O'Connor et. al. 2008). More recently, Loureiro & de Araujo, (2015) revealed that the influence of the movie “City of Gods” portraying Brazil negatively on viewer’s cognitive and affective image of Brazil is negative. As such, the above discussion based on the review of literature leads to the formulation of following hypothesis;

H0I: Exposure to movie with negative portrayal of a destination in films has a significant effect on viewers’ attitude towards the destination as against those not-exposed to movie.

Intention to visit

Intention to visit refers to a perceived likelihood of visiting a certain destination within a specific period of time (Whang, Yong, & Ko, 2016). Literature revealed that movies affect audiences through various factors, for instance visual beauty, actors, content and plot of the movie (Kork, 2016). In addition, locations, scenes and characters in the film may act as image and attraction generating attributes (Choi, Tkachenko, & Sil, 2011). However, visual portrayal of a destination is an important factor which determines whether the film will affect the decision of audiences to visit the location. Moreover, films make a major impact on intention to visit a destination (Quintal & Phau, 2015). However, the influence of the film with negative plot on viewer’s intention to visit the destination is negative (Loureiro, & de Araujo, 2015). They found that the adventure location and the beautiful landscape of Brazil portrayed in movie “City of God” were not sufficient to overcome the effects of the negative plot, resulting in a decrease on the viewers’ visiting intention to Brazil.

Furthermore, Croy & Walker (2003) stated that unfavourable portrayal of a destination in films may also influence viewers’ desire to visit the destination. However, Warnick, Bojanic & Siriangkul (2005) noted that watching the film “The beach” containing negative plot didn’t increase the intention of visiting Thailand, although the country's destination image was changed, both negative and positive. As recently revealed by Loureiro and de Araujo, (2015) that the breath-taking imagery of landscapes in such films with negative plot is the important component that is most likely to boost audiences’ visit intention.

Similarly, Hudson, Wang, & Gil (2011) suggested that audiences expressed a desire to visit destinations depicted in the film and were influenced by the landscape of destination and the cultural attractions. It is therefore logical to believe that tourists tend to visit specific places motivated by the images, stories or emotional attributes perceived in films (Hahm, & Wang, 2011; Kim, Agrusa, Lee, & Chon, 2007). This also proves that the effect of type of in-films destination portrayals on the destinations they depict vary from case to case. As such, the above discussion based on the review of literature leads to the formulation of following hypothesis;

H02: Audiences’ exposed to movie with negative portrayal of a destination in films has a significant effect on viewers’ intention to visit as against those not-exposed to movie.

Destination image

Destination image is a composite of various products, attractions, and attributes added into the total impression (MacKay & Fesenmaier, 1997; Aiello et. al, 2015). Destination image can be defined as “a totality of impressions, beliefs, ideas, expectations, and feelings accumulated towards a location over time” (Kim & Richardson, 2003). However, people form an impression about a destination as a consequence of a selection process based on several forms of information (Reynolds, 1965). As a form of reliable source of information, films are beneficial in building destination awareness and positive images especially of unexplored and unknown destinations (Hahm & Wang, 2011; Iwashita, 2008).

Movies are the main vehicles constructing and communicating messages of locations with which people do not have first-hand experiences (Kim & Richardson, 2003). They provide more objective visual, verbal and sensory information on destination’s attractions, safety, political and social norms (Iwashita, 2008; Kim & Richardson, 2003), building a more detailed image (Hahm & Wang, 2011). The existing literature agrees on the potential of films to influence destination image (Rodríguez Campo, et al., 2011; Hudson, Wang, & Gil, 2011; O’Connor, Flanagan, & Gilbert, 2010; Suni & Komppula, 2012). However, Spears, Josiam, Kinley, & Pookulangara, (2013) noted that in a Hollywood film the destination image portrayed affects the viewer’s desire to visit and the destination image of a place mostly depends upon how the destination is projected in a Hollywood film. Similarly, Xue, Chen, & Yu (2012) stated that the content of media reports is a critical determinant of visitors' image of the destination, especially for those who have not visited the destination.

Just as brand placements influence an audience’s attitude towards a brand, so too will movies have an impact on destination image if a destination plays a prominent part in the movie (Hudson, Wang, & Gil, 2011). In fact, many heritage sites that serve as film locations gain popularity after the film release because these places acquire specific meaning through film narration (Özdemir & Adan, 2014). Movies can increase the awareness and destination image of the host site. In addition, Kim & Richardson (2003) suggested that a popular movie could affect the destination image components and interest in visiting the filmed destination. The authors also found that viewers’ who were exposed to films and experiencing a destination in films acquire a more favourable destination image than those who were not exposed to the film. However, influence of the films with negative plot tends to negatively highlight the audience evaluations of the destination image attributes (Loureiro, & de Araujo, 2015). Similarly, Beeton (2001) testifies that film induced image created by negative storyline, such as criminal activities can be deemed undesirable. However, Shani et al., (2009) revealed that the impressions about natural and cultural characteristics of South America a movie Motorcycle Diaries (2004) made upon the audience were much stronger than the other problematic images of the region, stimulating the desire to make a visit. Moreover, Connell (2012) noted that even a favourable portrayal sometimes might bring negative outcomes. As such, the above discussion based on the review of literature leads to the formulation of following hypothesis;

H03: Audiences’ exposed to movie with negative portrayal of a destination in films has a significant effect on destination image as against those not-exposed to movie.

Research methodology

The present paper aimed is to examine the effect of negative film portrayal of a destination on viewers’ attitude towards the destination, their intention to visit and destination image. It is assumed that exposure to movie influences viewers’ responses towards destinations depicted in films in accordance with the film content and positive or negative film portrayal of such destinations.

Procedures and measures

The research methodology underlying examining the effects of negative portrayal of a destination in Bollywood movies on viewers’ attitude towards the destination, intention to visit and destination image is presented. A content analysis of recent and highest box-office hit Bollywood movies shot in Kashmir region of Jammu and Kashmir state was initially performed. Finally, Haider movie was selected among Bollywood movies as experimental stimuli and potential scenes of negative portrayal of the destination to be used in the experimental study were identified. The Bollywood movies Haider, shot extensively in Kashmir valley is adequate to the purpose of study, since the film is based on in recent political developments in Kashmir. The movie focuses on the most negative characteristics of the destination’s reality. Movie was further digitally edited to create a suitable experimental treatment to conduct experiments.

The participants were not informed about the purpose of the study and only those participants were allowed to be part of the experiments who had never visited Kashmir before.Two experiments were conducted on two groups of participants and were randomly assigned to one of the experimental conditions. One group of participants were exposed to the experimental stimuli and responses were collected by filling the questionnaire. An experimental setting enabled the manipulation and control over the allocation of experimental stimuli. Second group of the participants were not-exposed to experimental stimuli and their responses were also collected.

Selection of experimental stimuli

Pre-test 1: A small pre-test was conducted on a group of 10 participants and were asked to list the destinations in India mostly featured negatively in Bollywood movies. Kashmir was listed by majority and therefore selected as a destination for the purpose of the study. Because of the fact that Kashmir valley has been the destination of choice for a number of popular and box-office hit movies. It has also been portrayed negatively in several Bollywood films including Mission Kashmir, Fanaa, Haider.

Pre-test 2: In a small pre-test, a group of 15 respondents were asked to list down Bollywood movies with a negative portrayal. Haider movie was listed by majority and therefore selected as experimental stimulus for the study. The reason for selecting Haider is that whole movie was shot in Kashmir. Another reason for choosing Haider was it extensively portrayed Kashmir valley negatively. However, the film portrayed Kashmir in a negative light, yet raised awareness about people, culture, politics and tourism of the destination.

Pre-test 3: A third pre-test was conducted on a group of 10 participants to test whether the participants were able to recognise the destination featured in movie at the first instant. The analysis revealed that the majority of the participants were able to recognize the destination featured in the film at the first instant.

Manipulation of experimental stimuli

The content analysis first identified movies as potential experimental stimuli. Considering the complexity involved in editing and the suitability of the movies, Bollywood movie Haider with high negative content of a single destination (Kashmir) was chosen as experimental stimulus. The video segment was edited to create a suitable treatment for the experiment. Whole movie was digitally edited to create 30 min video clip suitable for experiments and increased the realism and generalizability of the present study.

Research participants

A descriptive analysis of the participants indicates that 62% were male while 38% were female. An overwhelming 80% of the participants mostly post- graduate, were between 18 and 25 years (70%). Sample was drawn from the subject pool of a large urban university in Jammu. Participants were thought to be an appropriate sample since young adults are passionate film-goers and are the primary consumers of films (Chan, Petrovici, and Lowe, 2016). Several control procedures were employed to maximize the quality of the responses. Participants who previously visited Kashmir valley were discarded from the study. Incomplete responses were excluded from further analysis.

Dependent and Independent variables

Viewers’ responses were measured by using three dependent variables including attitude toward the destination (ATD), Intention to visit (VI) and destination image (DI) while the independent variables used in the study was exposure to movie and non-exposure to movie.

Questionnaire and scale development

Questionnaire was developed and before collecting the data, a pre-test with 20 scholars and professors was carried out to evaluate scale equivalence, item clarity, and their receptivity to the experimental stimuli. Necessary adjustments to the questionnaire were made following this.

The questionnaire consisted of items measuring demographic variables (e.g., gender, age, qualification and location), attitude towards the destination, intention to visit, and destination image. In addition, respondents were asked an open-ended question “Have you ever visited Kashmir before”. Those who had previously visited Kashmir were removed from this study to ensure that the potential effect of prior knowledge of the destination should be disregarded.

Attitude towards the destination (Atd) was measured by three items adapted from Jalilvand, Samiei, Dini, & Manzari, (2012) and further modified to maximize their fit, with each item anchored on a five-point semantic difference scale. A three-item scale measuring intention to visit (IV) was adapted from Jalilvand, et al., (2012) and Kim & Stepchenkova, 2015 and further modified. Similarly, destination image (DI) was measured by eight items adopted from Ferns and Walls (2012) and Jalilvand, et al., (2012) and modified to increase their fit. Five point Likert scales were used to measure intention to visit and destination image in which 1 meant “strongly disagree” and 5 meant “Strongly agree”.

Data analysis

Randomization and Test Effects

The control and experimental group did not differ from each other with respect to age, qualification and location (p =.05). This means that differences between the groups regarding attitude and destination image cannot be caused by differences in these background variables. With respect to the effect variables attitude and destination image, the control group, which was not exposed to the movie, did not show significant differences between pre-test and post-test (p=.05). Thus, any differences between pre-test and post-test in the experimental groups are a result of watching the program.

Design

The hypotheses were tested using an experimental design with an experimental group and a control group. Therefore; two independent groups of participants were recruited and questioned at two different times. In the first experimental condition, participants were exposed to the movie and in the second experimental condition, participants were not exposed to the movie and responses were collected.

To test the hypothesis; whether or not negative portrayal of a destination in movie would affect audiences' attitudes toward the destination, intention to visit and destination image, independent sample t- test was conducted. Hypothesis was tested at 0.05 level of significance. The independent-sample t- test evaluates the difference between the means of two independent or unrelated groups. That is, we evaluate whether the means for two independent groups are significantly different from each other. The independent-samples t-test is commonly referred to as a between-groups design, and can also be used to analyze a control and experimental group. The Levene’s F-test for equality of variances is the most commonly used statistic to test the assumption of homogeneity of variance. This test uses the level of significance set in advance for the t-test analysis (e.g., α = .05).

Table 1: Independent Samples Test

Dependent Variable: Attitude towards the destination (ATD)

 

Levene’s test for

Equality of Variances

t-test for

equality of means

F

Sig.

t

df

 Sig.(2-tailed)

 

ATD

 

 

Equal variances

assumed

Equal variances

 not assumed

28.268

.000

5.582

 

5.582

78

 

57.048

.000

 

.000

             

      Source: Authors’ analysis

Analysis using independent t-test reveals that there is a significant difference in the viewers’ attitude towards the destination. From the table 1, it is revealed that the F-values for ‘Levene’s Test for Equality of Variances’ is F1, 78 = 28.268 with a Sig. (p) value of .000 (p<.05). Because the significance value is less than the alpha value of .05(p<.05), we reject the null hypothesis (no difference) for the assumption of homogeneity of variance and conclude that based on the negative portrayal of a destination in films, viewers’ attitude towards the destination varies significantly between the two groups (experimental and control group).

As the assumption of homogeneity of variance is not met, the data results associated with the “Equal variances not assumed,” have been taken into account (Cochran & Cox, 1957 adjustment for the standard error of the estimate and the Satterthwaite, 1946 adjustment for the degrees of freedom). If the sig. (p) values were greater than the alpha value of .05 (p > .05), the null hypothesis would have been retained with the conclusion that there is no significant difference between the two group’s variances.

It is further revealed from the independent-samples t-test that the t- values for the factor attitude towards the destination is 5.582. As these values resulted in a sig. (p) value which is less than the alpha of .05 (p <.05), we reject the null hypothesis in support of the alternative hypothesis and conclude that attitude towards the destination based on the negative portrayal of a destination in films differ between experimental and control group. Therefore, results support the first hypothesis that exposure to movie with negative portrayal of a destination has a significant effect on viewers’ attitude towards the destination as against those not-exposed to movie.

Table 2: Descriptive Statistics

Dependent Variable: Attitude towards the destination (ATD)

EXP_NEXP

Mean

Std. Deviation

N

Exposed to movie

4.3500

.45260

40

Not exposed to movie

3.4500

.91381

40

Source: Authors’ analysis

As shown in the Table 2, specific means results indicate that there exists a statistically significant difference between two independent group of the participants exposed to movie and those not-exposed to movie on attitude towards the destination. Results suggest that participants exposed to the movie (M= 4.350) have a more favourable attitude towards the destination against those not-exposed to the movie (M=3.450). Results imply that even negative portrayal of a destination in movies has a significant effect on viewers’ attitude towards the destination. These results are consistent with previous research (Shani et al., 2009) suggesting that even controversial films are sometimes beneficial to promote a sensitive or historical destination and improve the viewers’ intention to visit and destination image as long as they depict positive elements strongly enough to balance or cast aside the negative elements. The possible reasons for viewers favourable attitude towards destination may be prior knowledge, high familiarity and high attractiveness of the destination.

Table 3: Independent Samples Test

Dependent Variable: Intention to visit(IV)

 

Levene’s test for

Equality of Variances

t-test for equality of means

F

Sig.

t

df

Sig.(2-tailed)

IV

 

 

Equal variances assumed

 

Equal variances not assumed

7.991

.000

3.771

 

 

3.771

 

 

 

78

 

 

74.120

.000

 

 

.000

             

Source: Authors’ Analysis

From the table 3, it is revealed that the F-values for ‘Levene’s Test for Equality of Variances’ is F1, 78 = 7.991 with a Sig. (p) value of .000 (p<.05). Because the significance value is less than the alpha value of .05(p<.05), we reject the null hypothesis (no difference) for the assumption of homogeneity of variance and conclude that based on the negative portrayal of a destination in films, viewers’ intention to visit the destination varies significantly between the two groups(experimental and control group).

As the assumption of homogeneity of variance is not met, the data results associated with the “Equal variances not assumed,” have been taken into account (Cochran & Cox, 1957 adjustment for the standard error of the estimate and the Satterthwaite, 1946 adjustment for the degrees of freedom). If the sig. (p) values were greater than the alpha value of .05 (p > .05), the null hypothesis would have been retained with the conclusion that there is no significant difference between the two group’s variances.

It is further revealed from the independent-samples t-test that the t- values for the factor intention to visit the destination is 3.771. As these values resulted in a sig. (p) value which is less than the alpha of .05 (p <.05), we reject the null hypothesis in support of the alternative hypothesis and conclude that intention to visit the destination based on the negative portrayal of a destination in films differ between experimental and control group. Therefore, results support the first hypothesis that exposure to movie with negative portrayal of a destination has a significant effect on viewers’ intention to visit the destination as against those not-exposed to movie.

Table 4: Descriptive Statistics

Dependent Variable: IV

EXP_NEXP

Mean

Std. Deviation

N

Exposed to movie

3.5417

.77234

40

Not exposed to movie

2.8000

.97490

40

Source: Authors’ analysis

Table 4 showed that a statistically significant difference exists between participants exposed to movie against those not exposed to movie on their intention to visit a destination. Participants exposed to movie have higher intention to visit (M=3.542) than participants not-exposed to movie (M=2.800). Results are consistent with the previous studies that found even controversial movies have a significant influence on intention to visit Shani et al., (2009) but our results were inconsistent with Loureiro & de Araujo, (2015) that found the influence of the film with negative plot on viewer’s cognitive and affective image of Brazil as well as intention to visit is negative.

Table 5: Independent Samples Test

 Dependent Variable: Destination image(DI)

 

Levene’s test for

Equality of Variances

t-test for

equality of means

F

Sig.

t

df

Sig.(2-tailed)

DI

 

 

Equal variances

assumed

Equal variances not assumed

 

82.088

.000

4.488

 

4.488

78

 

52.118

   .000

 

.000

             

      Source: Authors’ analysis

From the table 5, it is revealed that the F-values for ‘Levene’s Test for Equality of Variances’ is F1, 78 = 82.088 with a Sig. (p) value of .000 (p<.05). Because the significance value is less than the alpha value of .05(p<.05), we reject the null hypothesis (no difference) for the assumption of homogeneity of variance and conclude that based on the negative portrayal of a destination in films, destination image varies significantly between the two groups(experimental and control group).

 As the assumption of homogeneity of variance is not met, the data results associated with the “Equal variances not assumed,” have been taken into account (Cochran & Cox, 1957 adjustment for the standard error of the estimate and the Satterthwaite, 1946 adjustment for the degrees of freedom). If the sig. (p) values were greater than the alpha value of .05 (p > .05), the null hypothesis would have been retained with the conclusion that there is no significant difference between the two group’s variances.

It is further revealed from the independent-samples t-test that the t- values for the factor destination image is 4.488. As these values resulted in a sig. (p) value which is less than the alpha of .05 (p <.05), we reject the null hypothesis in support of the alternative hypothesis and conclude that attitude towards the destination based on the negative portrayal of a destination in films differ between experimental and control group. Therefore, results support the first hypothesis that exposure to movie with negative portrayal of a destination has a significant effect on destination image as against those not-exposed to movie.

 

Table 6: Descriptive Statistics

 Dependent Variable: DI

EXP_NEXP

Mean

Std. Deviation

N

Exposed to movie

3.8900

.42233

40

Not exposed to movie

3.1100

1.01471

40

   Source: Authors’ analysis

Similarly, a significant difference was found between participants exposed to movie and not-exposed to movie on destination image. Participants exposed to movie (M=3.890) have relatively high favourable destination image against those not exposed to movie (M=3.110) (Table 6). Results are consistent with previous research that found movie viewing have substantial effect on altering destination image (Hudson, Wang, & Gil, 2011). Thus, the responses of the group of the participants exposed to movie towards negative film portrayal of a destination were higher as compared to the group of participants not exposed to movie. The possible reason for higher responses may be high familiarity and prior knowledge which may lead to a different perception of the destination portrayed in the film (Kim and Richardson, 2003). Previous research (Shani et al., 2009) also suggested that extensive and strong featuring of positive elements (beautiful landscape, high attractions) of a destination in films with negative portrayal were enough to overcome the effect of negative film portrayal of the particular destination. High familiarity, prior knowledge and high attractiveness of a destination are the other possible reasons for favourable responses by participants.

Discussion & Conclusion

There is no doubt that films have a substantial impact on viewers’ attitude towards the destination (Quintal & Phau, 2015), intention to visit (Kim & Richardson 2003) and destination image (O’Connor et al., 2010). However, there has been no study that examines the effect of negative film portrayal of a destination already having an negative image. The present study aimed to contribute to the understanding of the effect of negative portrayal of a destination in movies by investigating the effects of the Bollywood film Haider (2014) on viewers Atd, their IV and destination image of Kashmir valley in Jammu and Kashmir state.

A statistically significant difference was found between two independent groups of participants in which one group of participants were exposed to movie and the other group was not exposed to movie. This suggests that movie exposure have a significant influence on viewers’ responses. However, there was no significant effect of negative portrayal of a destination in films on viewers’ attitude towards the destination, intention to visit and destination image of Kashmir valley of Jammu and Kashmir state. The possible reasons for favourable responses of viewers towards negative destination portrayal in movie Haider may be due to strong depiction of breath-taking landscape, high attractive tourist destination and prior knowledge of Jammu and Kashmir as tourist destination.

Findings also suggest that participants exposed to movie have higher attitude towards destination, intention to visit and destination image against those not exposed to movie. Our findings were consistent with the Shani et. al., (2009) who found that even controversial movies are sometimes beneficial to promote a sensitive or historical destination and improve the viewers’ intention to visit and destination image. Negative portrayal of Kashmir in Bollywood movie Haider did not decrease viewers’ responses. The strong depiction of positive elements including beautiful landscape and attractive sites of Kashmir contributed towards the higher responses of viewers. The other possible reason for higher responses of viewers may be, through Bollywood films, audiences become immersed in a fantasy movie world and use destination portrayal in film as a representation of what that location offers in reality (Nayar, 1997).

The results showed that Atd, IV and DI increased favourably. Participants’ exposed to movie have higher and favourable ATD, IV and DI than those not exposed to movie. The possible reasons may be strong featuring of the beautiful landscape and the adventure context in the Bollywood movie Haider were enough to overcome the effects of the violence, political unrest and terrorism resulting in decrease of the visiting intentions and destination image. These findings are consistent with Shani et al., (2009) that even films with controversial plots can be advantageous as long as they depict positive elements strongly enough to balance or cast aside the negative elements. The other reasons for positive responses may be popularity of the destination, high attractiveness and prior knowledge of destination.

Implications

This study aims to contribute to the understanding of the effects of negative portrayal of  a destination in films on viewers’ attitude towards destination, intention to visit and destination image. The direct implication of such results is that destination managers need to be very selective in identifying movies in which to place their destinations. The results suggest that the association between the destination and the movies is of greater significance and needs to be considered for improving destination evaluations. However, destination marketers must keep in mind that to counter the negative portrayal of a destination in films, positive elements like breath-taking scenery and high attractive destinations must be depicted strongly in the film.

The promotional value of films cannot be overemphasized. A good story and plot in Bollywood films inter linked with destination is paramount for destination marketing. When viewers are absorbed by and appreciate the film, positive destination evaluation will be formed. Literature on film tourism support that ‘any publicity is good publicity’ (Shani et al., 2009); even the perceived negative aspects of destination may not affect the holistic image that viewers acquire. Therefore, the perceived negative features of destination after watching films with negative content may also be beneficial in enhancing intention to visit and destination image. The destinations portrayed in such films are exposed to viewers and is laid into the realizable opportunity set. However, it only holds true to the extent that other elements are attractive enough to counter balance the negative ones (Shani et al., 2009).  Therefore, marketers need to use the more positive dimensions such as breath-taking scenery, nature, culture, arts, history and famous attractions and utilizing movies that signify these aspects in their movie tourism marketing.

Limitations

Although the study offers an understanding of the critical role of films with negative portrayal of a destination on potential viewer’ attitude towards the destination, their intention to visit and destination image. Nevertheless, there are limitations to the present study that need to be accepted. First, the small sample in this study was generally drawn from post-graduate students at a large urban university. This sample could restrict the generalizability of the results to the broader population. Second, any study employing student population is at risk of external validity shortcomings. While we aimed at higher levels of internal validity, we recognise that a broader and stronger subject pool needs to be examined before drawing generalisations.

Future research

The present research did not address aspects such as the long-term effects of negative portrayal of a destination in movies. The present study did not explore extensively the cases in which the movie actually increased the attitude towards the destination, intention to visit and destination image. Studies examining the findings of this research with different samples from different states and countries in different settings are certainly another appropriate direction for future research. Finally, it is important to investigate effects of negative portrayal of a destination in other media such as news, reality TV and events advertising on viewers’ attitude towards the destination, intention to visit and destination image.

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