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Editorial Board A Refereed Monthly International Journal of Management
Prof. B. P. Sharma
(Editor in Chief)
Prof. Mahima Birla
(Additional Editor in Chief)
Dr. Khushbu Agarwal
(Editor)
Ms. Asha Galundia
(Circulation Manager)

 Editorial Team

Dr. Devendra Shrimali
Dr. Dharmesh Motwani
 

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE AND ORGANISATIONAL CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIOUR AMONG BANK EMPLOYEES

 

         *Prof. Keshav Sharma

*Registrar, Jammu University

 

**Parul Mahajan

** Assistant Professor, MIET, Jammu

 

ABSTRACT

This paper studies the relationship of  emotional intelligence with organizational citizenship behavior (OCB).The understanding of Emotional Intelligence (EI) in employees is emphasized because human relations in organisations are influenced by emotional factors more than by rational factors. It is the ability to understand ones emotions and inspire, influence and understand other people's emotions. The fundamental notion behind this study is that employees who exhibit OCB along with Emotional Intelligence (EI) will ultimately increase their productivity which in turn enhance the performance of the organization. The survey method is used for data collection. The scope of the study involves the employees of State Bank Of India working in the state of J&K only. The questionnaire were distributed to 700 employees and finally 673 questionnaires were find to be valid. In this research, two questionnaires were used for measuring both EI and OCB. In order to assess reliability of questionnaire upon distributing it to the employees of SBI and determining alpha cronbach the value of emotional intelligence questionnaire was calculated is 0.964 and of organizational citizenship behavior is 0.958 . Results of Pearson correlation test show that there is positive significant relationship between variables of emotional intelligence and organizational citizenship behavior of employees.  Finally  regression equation of this research is: Organisational Citizenship Behaviour = 1.037+ (0.749 * Emotional Intelligence).This study shows that expression of  emotions intelligently  along with the expression of organizational citizenship behavior will ultimately increase their productivity which in turn enhance the performance of the organization. The study thus indicated that Emotional intelligence was found to be positively associated with organisational citizenship behaviour.

 

KEYWORDS: Emotional Intelligence, Organisational Citizenship Behaviour

 

1 INTRODUCTION

Human resources are considered to be the most valuable and scariest resource in today’s economy (Belcourt, Bohlander & Snell, 2008). Human beings use their five senses to react to the external environment but they also use information from inside in the form of emotions and feelings. So, emotion is one of the most important and inseparable feature of human nature which guides one’s opinion and decision. Emotional Intelligence is related to being smart or intelligent in relation to the emotional aspect of human being. As stated by Howard Gardener, professor at Harvard University Emotional Intelligence is the ability to identify, use, understand, and manage your emotions in positive and constructive ways. It deals with the recognition of our own emotional state and that of others also. Emotional intelligence is all about listening to your internal voice and it’s imperative that organizations should focus on the importance of emotions with respect to the intellectual abilities attached to it. Today, organisations need to evaluate employee’s abilities in terms of emotions instead of their intellectual level because human relations in organisations are influenced by emotional factors more than by intellectual factors.

According to Jung and Yoon (2011), the emotional quotient is as important as the intelligence quotient as it helps the employees to perform their task or work in such a manner that ensures the desired outcome for the organization. Therefore, employees who are emotionally sound together with technical knowhow are essential for successful organizations. Emotional Intelligence has a considerable amount of effect on the performance of both individuals as well as organisations. So, it is required to be possessed at a moderate level for better one’s organisation commitment towards and is also required to perform extra role behaviours (Antony, 2013).The construct of Organisational Citizenship Behaviour, a form of extra role behaviour may hold promise for contribution to increased individual effectiveness in the service of overall organisational effectiveness (Jain, 2009).

 

Organisational Citizenship Behaviour is defined as “individual behaviour that is discretionary, not directly or explicitly recognised by the formal reward system, and that in the aggregate promotes the effective functioning of the organisation” (Organ, 1988). The efficient performance of employees creates the success story of the organisation. Thus, in order to have competitive edge organisations must have staff that are not only just functionally sound but are ready to stand by it throughout its thick and thin. World-class organisations have people who are always prepared to go beyond their formal job responsibilities and also devote their extra bit of time and energy to the work (Kashif et.al.,2011).

 

Indian banking sector possess a very important place in Indian economy because as a service provider it keeps the largest share and growing very fast. As service provider, they are required to be adaptive towards the demands and behaviours of their customers. It the Emotional  Intelligence which helps in catering the needs of the customers which will thereby increase the customer satisfaction. Thus, acknowledgement of Emotional Intelligence in banks is very important as it affects the performance of individuals, groups and ultimately the organization. Thus it is vital to concentrate more on such studies which tries to connect Emotional Intelligence with various variables of organization such as Organizational Citizenship Behaviour (OCB) or extra-role behavior. The fundamental notion behind this study is that employees who exhibit OCB along with Emotional Intelligence (EI) will ultimately increase their productivity which in turn enhance the performance of the organization.

 

This study has certain meanings attached to it which are as follows. First, it is important to know the effect of emotional intelligence on the organizational citizenship behavior, because only those organizations will be positive regarding their stability only if they have employees who are able to manage and control their own and others emotions and are able to consider its effect on the relationships thereof. While individuals on the other hand, who are treated as the corporate citizens of the organization are expected to go beyond the call of their duty in order to serve the organization. As there is a significant impact of emotional intelligence of employees on their performance as the citizens of the organizations, so there is a need to survey what effect the emotional aspect of banking employees on the predicting the effectiveness of organization like organizational citizenship behaviour.

 

2 THEORETICAL BACKGROUND

2.1 EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE

 

The Emotional Intelligence is one of the forms of human intelligence. Emotions and reasoning are the two capabilities of human nature. Where reasoning implies to make decision rationally and emotion means to understand and empathize and being human. Traditionally those people were selected in the organisations that have high reasoning skills or IQ. Emotion and intelligence were studied separately in 1990’s and ability of an individual was regarded as rationality ability and emotional ability. This concept of Emotional Intelligence was conversed in 1920’s and  initiated from the social intelligence which was proposed by Thorndike (1920) and defined it as an ability to understand and make relationships with people.

 

Salovey & Mayer (1990) coined the term Emotional Intelligence for the first time in 1990. And they defined Emotional Intelligence as “the ability to perceive, appraise and express emotions accurately and adaptively; the ability to understand emotions and emotional knowledge; the ability to access and generate feeling where they facilitate cognitive activities and adaptive actions; and the ability to regulate emotions in oneself and others”(Mayer et al.,2004).

 

 In 1995, Emotional Intelligence started receiving more attention with release of 'Emotional Intelligence' by Daniel Goleman. His main idea behind Emotional Intelligence is that it includes abilities or attributes of employees which are related to their emotional side like recognizing and managing their own emotions, motivating oneself, recognizing and managing others emotions and managing relationship with others. Emotional Intelligence is thus important for every individual because it analyses the capacity of individual to control and regulate its negative emotions. Thus, from this perspective it becomes essential to become aware of emotions and also the intelligence attached to it. Daniel Goleman also recommended four main domains of Emotional Intelligence i.e. Self-Awareness, Self-Management, Social Awareness, and Relationship Management (Boyatzis, Goleman, & Rhee, 2000). This fig. below shows Goleman‘s new model of emotional intelligence.

Above Goleman‘s model outlines four main EI constructs:

 

  1. Self-awareness — It is the ability to recognize ones emotions and its impact on other people.

 

  1. Self-management — It comprises of managing and regulating one‘s impulse feelings and emotions and also to adjust with changing situations.

 

  1. Social awareness — It is the ability to be aware and understands the emotions of others.

 

  1. Relationship management — It is the capability to encourage, manage and develop others.

 

2.2 Organisational Citizenship Behaviour (OCB)

 

Organisations today compete in fast-paced, dynamic environments and need employees who are willing to exceed their formal job description must rely on employee’s initiative in order to perform efficiently. OCB was first so named by Organ and his colleagues (Bateman & Organ,1983: Organ, 1988) and defined as  “individual behaviour that is discretionary, not directly or explicitly recognized by the formal reward system, and that in aggregate promotes the effective functioning of the organisation”. The concept of OCB had its origin from social exchange theory that illustrates that people feel obligated to reciprocate when they feel benefited from the same other person’s or some entity’s action (Coyle- Shapiro, Kessler & Purcell,2004). Thus, it is a kind of mutual exchange where both the parties get benefitted. People with strong Organisational Citizenship Behaviour will exert greater efforts to master a challenge while those with weak are likely to reduce their efforts or even quit (Bandura and Schunk, 1981; Brown and Inouyne, 1978; Weinberg et al., 1979; Staples et al., 2005: Sariolghalam and Noruzi, 2010).

 

Organ identified five major categories of OCB—Altruism, Conscientiousness, Sportsmanship, Courtesy and Civic Virtue. Relevant literature defines the above five categories as follows: Altruism is an unselfish behaviour where one shows a desire to help others. Conscientiousness is the individual behaviour in carrying out a job e.g. low absenteeism, obeying rules etc. Sportsmanship is refraining from amplifying problems and promoting spirit of sport. Courtesy involves cooperation and preventing problems for others. Civic Virtue is voluntary participation in organisational political life and showing high level of loyalty.

William and Anderson (1991) have identified two broad categories of OCB which are organizational citizenship behaviour for organizations (OCBO) and organizational citizenship behaviour for individuals (OCBI). OCBO includes that behaviours that are directed towards the benefit of the organization, and OCBI comprises of that behaviour which benefits other individuals and thereby ultimately contributes towards organizational effectiveness.

Organizational Citizenship Behaviour is that behavior which is not prescribed in the formal job description as such it is the willingness of the employees to go beyond the call of duty without any specific compensation. To facilitate such type of behaviour there is a need of emotional connection between the employees and the organization. These constructive and positive emotions will thereby helps in maintaining the emotional stability and thus boost the group relations. In other words, when employee feels themselves as an important part of the organization, they will depict citizenship behaviour and also understand well the emotions of themselves and others. Moreover, Organisational Citizenship Behaviour involves strong voluntary behavior, consequently employees with high Emotional Intelligence will understand and express better than those with low Emotional Intelligence. Following are the few studies which shows the relationship between Emotional Intelligence and Organisational Citizenship Behaviour with respect to Altruism, conscientiousness, sportsmanship, civic virtue and courtesy.

 

Table 1: Researches on Emotional Intelligence and Organisational citizenship behaviour

Researches

                 Study contents

Abraham, (1999)

Emotional Intelligence enhances altruistic behaviour of an individual. It enables employees to comprehend their fellow colleagues and to respond better than those with a lower level of Emotional Intelligence.

Douglas, Frink and Ferris, (2004)

They noted that highly conscientious people with higher Emotional Intelligence had higher levels of performance than those with lower level of Emotional Intelligence. In other words, those with a lower level of conscientiousness and Emotional Intelligence did not perform well.

Abraham Carmeli and Sidika Nihal Colakoglu, (2005)

 The study proposes that emotional intelligence moderates the relationship between affective commitment and Organisational Citizenship Behaviours – altruism and compliance. In other words, the positive relationship between affective commitment and organizational citizenship behaviours and the altruism was stronger for high emotional intelligence individuals.

Modassir and Singh,(2008)

The Emotional Intelligence of managers had a positive correlation with the altruism of their subordinates. Since the followers believes in creating a work family, holding up a vision that benefits to all, they are motivated to attain organisational objectives as a team and helping one another for accomplishment.

Khalid & et.al.,(2009)

The result shows a clear tendency for student’s deviance to be elevated when sportsmanship is weak. Employee’s who exhibit low level of sportsmanship are more likely to engage in deviant behaviours. If employee emotional intelligence is improved, deviant behaviour related to organisational tasks would be reduced.

Korkmaz and Arpaci,(2009)

They examined the relationship of Organisational Citizenship Behaviour and Emotional Intelligence in Turkey and found that Emotional Intelligence of leaders can drive specific factors of Organisational Citizenship Behaviour among employees that is Civic Virtue, Conscientiousness and Altruism.

James,Velayudhan & Gayatridevi (2010)

They studied the relationship between organizational citizenship behaviour and emotional intelligence of the corporate executives. The results indicated that organizational citizenship behaviour is positively correlated with emotional intelligence.

Habibollah,Yaghoubi,& Sin (2011)

Their study examined the relationship between emotional intelligence and organizational citizenship behaviour. It was found that altruism and conscientiousness variables have strong relation with the emotional intelligence. In addition, it was found that emotional intelligence predicated the conscientiousness and altruism behaviours of the personnel.

Yaghobi et.al (2011)

In their research” an analysis over the relationship between OCB and emotional intelligence among managers of industrial sections in Iran”, found out that among OCB'S dimensions, there is a positive and significant correlation between emotional intelligence and three dimensions of working morality, civic behavior and altruism.

Sahafi et.al (2011)

''The effect of emotional intelligence on OCB among physicians'', it was determined that '' emotional intelligence'' as an independent variable has three dimensions i.e. sympathy'', self-motivation  and  self-control  which have significant and positive effect on OBC .

Naqhdi‟s and Shatalebi's research (2013)

'' The possibility of predicting OCB through emotional intelligence creation in Isfahan's municipality staff'' it was determined that among dimensions of emotional intelligence, the best OCB predictors are self-awareness, self-motivation and social skills.

Antony (2013)

They study the  effect of emotional intelligence on OCB'' and concluded that there is a rather positive and strong correlation between the two variables of emotional intelligence and OBC

Mostafa Azizishomami et al, (2014)

There study shows that there is a significant relationship exists between emotional intelligence with civic virtue, altruism, conscientiousness, sportsmanship and courtesy.

 

3 Research Objective

 

  1. To study the level of emotional intelligence among employees of SBI
  2. To study the level of organizational citizenship behavior among employees of SBI.
  3. To study the relationship between emotional intelligence and organizational citizenship behavior among employees of SBI.

 

4 Research Methodology

 

The survey method is used for data collection. The scope of the study involves the employees of State Bank Of India working in the state of J&K only. The questionnaire were distributed to 700 employees and finally 673 questionnaires were find to be valid. In this research, two questionnaires were used for measuring variables which are as follows:-

 

1.The Emotional Intelligence is an independent variable of the research. It was measured by various scales like SREIT developed by Schutte et al.(1998), TEIQue-SF by Petrides & Furnham (2006), EIS developed By Hyde, Pethe & Dhar(2002), EI(PcSc) scale by Namrata &Singh(2013). The instrument consisting of 35 statements which measures 04 dimensions (Self Awareness, Self-Management, Social Awareness and Relationship Management) and 20 sub-dimensions originally operationalized by Daniel Goleman with five -point Likert scales, ranging from 1 (strongly disagree) to 5 (strongly agree).

 

  1. The Organisational Citizenship Behaviour is a dependent variable. The OCB scale was adopted from Podsakoff and colleagues (1990) based on Organ’s (1988) five dimensional taxonomy. The scale was originally designed to measure the five subscales of OCB such as altruism, conscientiousness, sportsmanship, courtesy, and civic virtue, following the suggestion of Hoffman and associates (2007). The scale comprises of 31 items to measure OCB.

 

The data collected were analyzed using SPSS version 16. Test Kolmogorov - Smirnov test was used to study the data to be normal and Pearson correlation coefficient were used to assess the relationship between Emotional Intelligence and Organizational Citizenship Behavior.

 

5 Validity And Reliability

 

The content validity of these two instruments was done by incorporating sufficient number of statements in each dimension. The overall reliability of the questionnaire of emotional intelligence is 0.964 and of organizational citizenship behavior is 0.958 by means of Cronbach’s alpha coefficient which is significantly high.

Table 2 Reliability Statistics

Variables

 

Cronbach's Alpha

N of Items

Emotional Intelligence

0.964

35

Organisational 

Citizenship Behaviour

0.958

                31

 

 

6 Results

 

The first objective is to study the level of emotional intelligence among employees of SBI.

 

Table 3  Emotional Intelligence T-Test

 

N

Mean

Std. Deviation

Std. Error Mean

Emotional Intelligence

673

4.0553

.39924

.01539

 

 

t

df

Sig. (2-tailed)

Mean Difference

95% Confidence Interval of the Difference

 

Lower

Upper

Emotional Intelligence

263.513

672

.000

4.05533

4.0251

4.0855

p<.05

 

The above table shows that results of T-test at certainty level of 95% and sig level of (sig=0.000) shows that emotional intelligence of employees is at acceptable level with mean score of 4.0553.

 

The second objective is to study the level of organizational citizenship behavior among employees of SBI.

 

Table 4  Organizational Citizenship Behavior T-Test

 

 

N

Mean

Std. Deviation

Std. Error Mean

Organisational Citizenship Behaviour

673

4.1102

.40773

.01572

           

 

 

 

t

df

Sig. (2-tailed)

Mean Difference

95% Confidence Interval of the Difference

 

Lower

Upper

OCB

261.515

672

.000

4.11023

4.0794

4.1411

p<.05

The results of T-test at certainly level of  95% and sig level of (sig=0.000) show that the level of OCB among employees is at acceptable level with mean score of 4.1102.

 

The third research objective is to study the relationship between emotional intelligence and organizational citizenship behavior among employees of SBI.

 

Table 5. Correlation between Emotional intelligence and organizational citizenship behavior

 

EI

OCB

EI                      Pearson Correlation

                          Sig. (2-tailed)

                          N

1

 

673

 

.749**

                                    .000

                                     673

 

OCB                  Pearson Correlation

                          Sig. (2-tailed)

                          N

 

   .749**

                       .000

                      673

 

 

 

 

 

1

 

673

 

 

 

 

 

**p<0.005

From the above table it can be seen that there is a positive significant relationship of 0.749 between emotional intelligence and organizational citizenship behavior among employees of SBI.

 

 

Table 6 Variables Entered/Removedb

Model

Variables Entered

Variables Removed

Method

1

Emotional Intelligence

.

Enter

a. All requested variables entered.

 

b. Dependent Variable: OCB

 

 

It is possible to predict OCB and for that the entire variables are input to equation together.

 

Table 7 Model and variance

Model

R

R Square

Adjusted R Square

Std. Error of the Estimate

1

.749a

.562

.561

.26482

a. Predictors: (Constant), Emotional Intelligence (EI)

 

From the table 7, it can be seen that the level of  (R2 = 0.561) which means that nearly  56% of variance of organizational citizenship behavior is described  by emotional intelligence i.e. 56% dispersion is observed that OCB of employees is described by using emotional intelligence.

 

 

Table 8 ANOVAb

Model

Sum of Squares

df

Mean Square

F

Sig.

1

Regression

60.297

1

60.297

859.796

.000a

Residual

47.057

671

.070

 

 

Total

107.354

672

 

 

 

a. Predictors: (Constant), EI

 

 

 

 

b. Dependent Variable: OCB

 

 

 

 

 

Level of (R2= 0.561) shows that regression model is appropriately anticipated. In order to determine whether there is linear relationship between independent and dependent variable, it is benefitted from F test that is 859.796. Whereas sig level of 0.000 it can be seen that there is complete linear relationship between Organisational citizenship behavior and Emotional Intelligence of employees of SBI.

 

 

Table 9 Coefficientsa

Model

Unstandardized Coefficients

Standardized Coefficients

t

Sig.

B

Std. Error

Beta

1

(Constant)

1.037

.104

 

9.946

.000

Emotional Intelligence

.750

.026

.749

29.322

.000

a.     Dependent Variable: OCB

 

 

 

 

 

 

Organisational Citizenship Behaviour = 1.037+ (0.749 * Emotional Intelligence).

 

7 Discussion

For the survival of any organization, it is required to have competent and efficient workforce. Without the human force it is not possible for the organization to survive and become successful. So, it is evident for the organization to acknowledge the emotional intellect of the employees which thereby display extra-role behaviours. These are organizational desired behaviours which are required for every single unit and organization for its achievement. Thus, this research aims at determining the relationship between emotional intelligence and organizational citizenship behavior among the employees of SBI.

 

From the above results, it was found that there is a strong correlation between emotional intelligence and organizational citizenship behaviour, and it can be concluded that these two variables have a direct impact on each other. Emotional intelligence has a considerable effect in promotion of organizational citizenship behavior of employees of SBI. So, it is important to foster emotional intelligence in organizations to achieve the positive outcome such as organizational citizenship behaviour.

 

Emotional intelligence affects the organization, so it is suggested that they should consider the emotional intelligence of employees while recruiting them and also thereafter developing  their EI skills so that they can perform organizational citizenship behaviour which facilitates in the realization of goals which subsequently increases the organizational effectiveness. Such types of behaviours can be strengthen by encouraging or implementing appropriate reward system. It is required that employees should be given training so that they can understand and execute their emotional and behavioural part.

 

8 CONCLUSION

 

Both these two variables that is Emotional Intelligence and Organisational citizenship behaviour affect the performance of the employees. Thus organization should focus more on the enhancement of emotional intelligence in the work place. The HR manager should try to gauge the problems encountered by the employees and provide them training in order to overcome the fear of unknown. This will make them emotionally determined and thus they will more inclined towards displaying ERB’s or OCB’s. Subsequently, which will make employees to achieve both organizational and individual goals and subsequently increase the effectiveness of organization.

 

This study should be quite useful to the further research in the areas of organizational citizenship behaviour and emotional intelligence. In the present study, it is concluded that organizational citizenship behaviour and emotional intelligence are positively related. Thus Emotional Intelligence is that variable which is required to be possessed by employees in order to perform citizenship behaviours because employees with emotional skills and the interpersonal efficiency are more satisfied which would in turn result in organizational effectiveness and productivity. The study also conveyed that an organizational culture should be developed in order to enhance Emotional Intelligence which will thereby maximize the effectiveness of the organization like organizational citizenship behaviour. More in depth study can be done make the theory of emotional intelligence and organizational citizenship behaviour more relevant and systematic. 

 

 

 

 

 

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