Imapct factor(SJIF): 5.889
MOTIVES AND DRIVES OF EXPORT ENTREPRENEURSHIP: EVIDENCE FROM THE SEAFOOD EXPORT FIRMS IN TAMIL NADU
Dr.S.RAJAMOHAN1, D.JOEL JEBADURAI2
1Professor, Alagappa Institute of Management, Alagappa University, Karaikudi -630004
Tamilnadu. Email id: firstname.lastname@example.org,
2ICSSR Doctoral Fellow, Alagappa Institute of Management, Alagappa University, Karaikudi – 630004, Tamilnadu, Email.id: email@example.com, Cell.no: 9943172016
Seafood enterprises have got its own potential do to the business in the international market. The contribution of seafood enterprises in the international market stimulate the indian economy for to stand in the peak of mountain. The contribution of processing food sector in international business is the remarkable achievement in recent days. In the processing food sector, seafood sector has showed higher involvement in the export figures while compared with all other food processing industries. For the drives of this development in seafood export, the entrepreneurs are initiated and stimulate their direction towards the seafood business. In order to assess the factors motivate the seafood exporter towards the seafood business in the international market the research has been conducted. The researcher has used purposive sampling method to collect the data from 31 seafood exporters through interview scheduled method. The researcher has used SPSS 17 for the analysis of collected data. The tools are percentage analysis, one sample t test and friedman test are used. From the study the researcher has found that seafood exporters are got the inspiration to start the seafood business only through their inner stimuli rather than other factors. The researcher concluded that stating the business is mainly with the psychological intention of the exporters’ rather than any other forces. It is the pride and privileges to thank the authorities of Indian Council of Social Science Research to offer funds in time to complete this research paper with funded and deserved manner.
Key words: Entrepreneurship, Motivation, Friedman test, One Sample t test, Seafood Firms
Export Entrepreneurship is considered as the key part of economic development of the country. The development is possible through entrepreneurs are transform their innovative ideas into realistic one. Export entrepreneurs are making the significant impact on the economy through offering employment opportunities to the weaker section people, earning the foreign exchange inflow, solve the foreign debt and so on. In recent days, government also frame the favourable policies related with the development of export processed food products to the foreign countries. Entrepreneurship in the food processing sector is strength of the export country, because importers country is depend on the exporter country for their food consumption needs. In the initial process of involving the exporter in the seafood business is concerned with the motives and drives of the business environment surrounded to them. This research paper presents the export entrepreneurship statement of the problem, review of literature, objectives of the study, methodology, analysis and interpretations and findings and suggestions.
SEAFOOD EXPORT IN TAMILNADU
Seafood sector has emerged as a highly vibrant and dynamic sector of the Indian economy over the last five decades. Seafood is the essential commodities to the human being to meet out their protein needs in the world. In this reason consumers in the world are express their basic needs towards the seafood consumption. Consumers in the international market consume the seafood for the various reasons such as taste and availability of different varieties of seafood and healthiest reasons and so on. But this consumption of the international consumers is only possible through the method of export. Because export is the prime way of entering into the international trade and it is the way for to bring out the goods in the hands consumers of any countries and also it is the main cause for the economic development of country through earn foreign exchange to solve the trade deficit of the country. In seafood export, Tamilnadu involved the good contribution in among the total supplier of seafood export basket of various states in India. It is the third largest producer of fish in India and export of seafood to various countries. It has export different varieties of seafood to the various countries in the form of frozen, dried, chilled conditions. The current demand pattern of healthiest food, modernizing the chilled processed technology this sector achieved the tremendous growth in the international market.
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Indian fisheries and aquaculture is an important sector of food production, providing nutritional security to the food basket, contributing to the agricultural exports and engaging about fourteen million people in different activities. The contribution of these much of people involving in the seafood sector are possible through the motive of the exporter involving in the seafood export business. While starting the business in the international market they would be considered lot of factors. But majority of the people selecting their career as the seafood exporter are from the coastal areas. It is mainly for the reason of family and environment reasons and also various reasons. For the existence of plentiful of resources, attract the exporters towards the initiation of seafood business in the international market. Along with the drives there is a lot of forces give the pressure to business aspirants to do a business in the seafood sectors. Within this backdrop this study is made an attempt to export motives of seafood exporters of Tamilnadu.
OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
This part includes the review of previous studies conducted in the field of different aspect of motivating force to start the export business.
Tiit Elenurm (2012) wrote an article entitled with “Entrepreneurial orientation of business students and entrepreneurs. He said that the identification of business opportunities for to initiate the new business need co-creative and innovative ideas to the entrepreneurs and later on modification can made in the business based on the changes in the environment.
Jodyanne Kirkwood and Sara Walton (2010) told that Ecopreneurs were motivated by five factors: their green values; earning a living; passion; being their own boss; and seeing a gap in the market.
Gerry Segal et.al., (2005) wrote a research article entitled with “motivation to become the entrepreneur”. They found that the ability of tolerance of risk, perceived feasibility of the business, self employment for social respect are the factors motivate the entrepreneur to chosen their career as entrepreneurs.
Josiane Fahed‐Sreih et.al., (2009) discussed in their research paper entitled with Family contributions to entrepreneurial development in Lebanon, family plays an vital role in the business in various stages such as startup the business, running and the growth of business. Family member contributed the business through involvement in the business through the service of employment and offer the funds to meet out the financial needs.
Ven Sriram, and Tigineh Mersha (2010) wrote an article entitled with Stimulating entrepreneurship in Africa. In teir article both of them are mentioned that entrepreneurship is lauded as a engine of economic development and job creation with creating most of the new jobs in many countries. they are identify that some of the important factors that contribute to start-up and success of new business ventures in Africa, emphasizing that while personality factors such individual drive, competency and availability of resources are important for the successful launch of new business venture, effective government policy also critical in promoting successful entrepreneurial initiatives. The found that most of the African entrepreneurs believe that they have the requisite passion, energy and determination needed to start and manage new business
An article entitled “A study on export performance of marine products in India” was written by Muthusamy.A. He said that marine sector is the sun rising sector under the special focus initiative of the foreign trade policy of the Government of India. After the post liberalization era, there are quantitative restrictions for marine products and also export rules and regulations are liberalized. Finally he found that Indian exported seafood industries are suffered with the limitations of fish production and availability of raw materials for processing and changed the market perception in international marketing environment.
Ganesh kumar.B and Joshi.P.K (2011) in their study mentioned that India has the wide scope for to enhance its fisheries export and focus the various new market opportunities in many Asian and European countries but it is possible through the framing of favorable policy measures in fisheries.
HYPOTHESES OF THE STUDY
The study is mainly concerned with the primary data. Primary data collected through using the interview schedule method. The data was collected by way of met the exporter and asked their responses.
The sampling size is taken for the study is 31 with the purposive sampling method. The study area is restricted to Tuticorin district of Tamil Nadu.
The statistical tools like percentage analysis, one sample t test and friedman test are used for the analysis of the study.
Findings part is necessary one in the research article, because it is reveals the theme of the study.
PROFILE OF THE EXPORTER
The profile of the exporter are studied based on the needs of to assess the exporter opinion towards the variables used in the study. In this study the researcher has classified the profile of the exporter into age, educational qualification, marital status and types of the family.
Profile of the exporter
Source: Primary data
From the table.1 it is inferred that 38.7 percent of the respondents are concerned with the age group of 28 to 38 years. 32.3 percent of the respondents are having the educational qualification of post graduate, 67.7 percent of the respondents are got the married and 51.6 percent of the majority of the respondents is living with the joint family system.
PROFILE OF THE EXPORT FIRM
To study the profile of the firm is necessary to fulfill the objectives of the research problem. In this study the researcher has classified the firm, experience in seafood business, types of exporter, types of ownership and the types of the firm.
Profile of the export firm
Source: Primary data
Table.2 displayed the profile of the seafood firm. 38.7 percent of the respondents are above 15 years of experience in the seafood business, 58.1 percent of the respondents are doing their business by means of manufacturer exporter, 41. 94 percent of the respondents’ ownership method of the business is partnership.
EXPORT PRODUCTS OF SEAFOOD
Exporters are catch the fish from the sea, after the procurement they are process the fish based on the ordering terms of the importers. Generally the following types of products are exported by the seafood exporter to the foreign countries.
Export products of seafood
Source: Primary data
Table.3 portraits that seafood products export form Tamil Nadu. 58.06 percent of the respondents are export the frozen shrimp, 12.90 percent of the respondent are export the Dried items and 19.35 percent of the respondents are export the other items such as fish meal and fish oil to the foreign countries.
MOTIVATING FORCE FOR STATING THE SEAFOOD BUSINESS- FRIEDMAN TEST
Exporter involved in the international business only through the motivating force of someone behind them. The researcher has identified the motivation forces such as Myself, friends, field achiever, family, government and environment.
Motivating force for stating the seafood business- FRIEDMAN TEST
Source: Primary data
Table.4 depicted the respondents ranking responses towards the motivating forces for to start the seafood business. Based on the mean rank Myself (2.61) got the first rank, Family members (2.81) got the second rank, environment (3.27) got the third rank, government (4.03) got the fourth rank, friends (4.05) got the fifth rank and the sixth rank was assigned to field achiever with the mean rank of 4.23. Based on the P value 0.001 respondents are significantly differ while ranking the motivating force for to start the seafood business
REASON FOR INVOLVING THE SEAFOOD BUSINESS
Exporters involve the seafood business for the various reasons. But the reason are cannot to fulfilled by the exporter in the international business. Form the table.5, the researcher has framed the reason for the exporter involving the seafood business.
Reason for involving the seafood business- One sample T test
Source: Primary data
From the table.5 it is understand that‘t’ values of 18.02, 16.94, 16.86, 16.28, 15.52, 15.35, 13.62, 13.21, 13.56, 10.41 are statistically significant at 5 percent level and all the ‘t’ values are positive with consistent standard deviation. Therefore it is concluded that seafood exporters are strongly agree with the more profit than domestic market, right environment, high demand in the international market, experience in seafood industry, good knowledge in seafood business, good business scope for seafood products, consistent availability of raw material, surplus sources of money, lot of support from government side, able to start with small investment.
Based on the friedman test mean value 2.61 exporters are motivated themselves rather than any factors motivate them to start the seafood business. So regular entrepreneurial programme should be conducted to the entrepreneur for to increase their participation in the seafood business. The following are the measures are suggested by the exporters of Tamil Nadu while provide their responses in the interview schedule.
Entrepreneurship is the risk taking venture rather than doing the business under the employer. The government should make the awareness to exporter about the existence of export incentive schemes and opportunities available in the international market for the food products in order to increase the exporter contribution in the export sector.
LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The sample size of the study is very low due to the no willingness of the respondents to give their response and fear to participate in the research. Second the results of this research is cannot be applied in other parts of India. The study is useful to understand the reason of the exporter to start the seafood business but it is not useful to take the decision to improve the entrepreneur contribution in Tamilnadu.
Pacific Institute of Management, Pacific Hills, Airport Road, Udaipur - 313001,