Imapct factor(SJIF): 6.56
A Refereed Monthly International Journal of Management
A Study of Relationship between Job Satisfaction and Emotional Intelligence among School Teachers of Kangra District of Himachal Pradesh
D. A. V college, Hoshiarpur (Punjab)
Mailing address: Sh Ram Pal Sharma, Hira Bagh,
St. No. 8, H. No. 1757/25A , Jagraon 142026(Ludhiana) Punjab
Renu Bala (Student)
Master Tara Singh Memorial College, Ludhiana
Mailing address: Jagdish Baweja, Ashoke Nagar,
Salem Tabri, Ludhiana (Punjab)
Lalita Kumari (Senior Research Fellow)
Guru Nanak Dev University Amritsar, Punjab
Mailing address: D/o Sh Ram Pal Sharma, Hira Bagh,
St. No. 8, H. No. 1757/25A , Jagraon 142026(Ludhiana) Punjab
M— 9914895548, Email Address (s):firstname.lastname@example.org
Job satisfaction is the favorable and unfavorable subjective feelings with which employs view their work. The aim of this study to study the job satisfaction among secondary school teachers in relation to their emotional intelligence with special reference to Kangra district of Himachal Pradesh. A sample of 220 respondents is selected which is further divided in male and female in 1:1 ratio. 2*2 factorial design (ANOVA) test is used. The result shows that there is significant difference among male and female respondents regarding their job satisfaction and there is job satisfaction among teachers of high Emotional intelligence and low Emotional intelligence in schools. The result also shows that there is no significant interactional effect of the gender and emotional intelligence on job satisfaction of secondary school teacher. The results of this study may be helpful for human resource managers especially in schools to satisfied and retained their talented and loyal workforce.
Development of nation depends upon the quality of education imparted to its citizen, which in turn depends upon the quality of teachers. The quality of the teachers is judged through his work and behaviors, which is turn depends upon how well a teacher is satisfied with himself / herself and his / her environment.
A teacher, who is happy with his job, plays a pivotal role in the upliftment of society. Well-adjusted and satisfied teacher can contribute a lot of the well being as his/her pupils. A dissatisfied teacher can become irritable and may create tensions which can have negative influences on the students learning process and it consequently affects their academic growth to satisfaction implies the overall adjustment to work situation. Attitude is readiness to real toward or against some situation, person or things in a particular manner.
LITERATURE REVIEW OF JOB SATISFACTION
Maslow (1954) suggested that human needs form a five-level hierarchy ranging from physiological needs, safety, belongingness and love, esteem to self-actualization. Herzberg et al. (1959) formulated the two-factor theory of job satisfaction and postulated that satisfaction and dissatisfaction were two separate and sometimes even unrelated phenomena. Intrinsic factors named ‘motivators’ (that is, factors intrinsic to the nature and experience of doing work) were found to be job ‘satisfiers’ and included achievement, recognition, work itself and responsibility. Extrinsic factors which they named ‘hygiene’ factors were found to be job ‘dissatisfiers’ and included company policy, administration, supervision, salary, interpersonal relations and working conditions. Herzberg and Mausner’s Motivation-Hygiene theory has dominated the study of the nature of job satisfaction, and formed a basis for the development of job satisfaction assessment. Investigated by several disciplines such as psychology, sociology, economics and management sciences, job satisfaction is a frequently studied subject in work and organisational literature. This is mainly due to the fact that many experts believe that job satisfaction trends can affect labour market behaviour and influence work productivity, work effort, employee absenteeism and staff turnover. Moreover, job satisfaction is considered a strong predictor of overall individual well-being (Diaz-Serrano and Cabral Vieira, 2005), as well as a good predictor of intentions or decisions of employees to leave a job (Gazioglu and Tansel, 2002). Beyond the research literature and studies, job satisfaction is also important in everyday life. Organisations have significant effects on the people who work for them and some of those effects are reflected in how people feel about their work (Spector, 1997). This makes job satisfaction an issue of substantial importance for both employers and employees. As many studies suggest, employers benefit from satisfied employees as they are more likely to profit from lower staff turnover and higher productivity if their employees experience a high level of job satisfaction. However, employees should also ‘be happy in their work, given the amount of time they have to devote to it throughout their working lives’ (Nguyen, Taylor and Bradley, 2003a).
LITERATURE REVIEW OF EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE
Emotional intelligence overlaps to some content with general intelligence. The Emotional intelligence person is skilled in four area identifying emotions, under standing emotion and regulating emotions. According to Goleman (1995) Emotional intelligence consists of five factors, namely knowing one’s emotions, managing emotions, motivating oneself, recognizing emotions in other and handing relationship.
Emotional intelligence allows us to think more creatively and use our emotions to solve problem Denial Goleman (1995) believes that Emotional intelligence appears to be an important set of psychological abilities of relate to success in life. It is empathy and communication skills as well as social and leadership skills that will be control to your success in life and personal relationship rather than a high I.Q Goleman suggest that it is for better to have a high EQ (Emotional Intelligence Quotient) if you want to be a valued and a productive member of society.
Daniel Goleman (1998) argues that men particularly need to developed Emotional skills and he gives many example of men with high intelligence who were not successful because they had problems with their people managements skills. He found from his research that people high EQ generally have successful relationship with family, friends and fellow workers. They are successful because they persist in the face of setbacks and channel their Emotional energies towards achieving their goals. Emotional Intelligence is said to involve the ability to perceive and accurately express emotion, to use emotion to facilitate thought, to understand emotions, and to manage emotions for emotional growth (Mayer & Salovey, 1997) While the construct of emotional intelligence is two decades older, the research on the psychology of emotions has a long and very rich history. Most of the early publications were based on clinical observations and case studies and lacked empirical data. The issue of emotions has been a dominant component of theories and treatments of mental disorders since the end of the 19th century
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
“Study of Job Satisfaction among Secondary School Teachers in Relation to their Emotional Intelligence .”
OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
1. To study the impact of Male and Female teacher on job satisfaction.
2. To study the impact of Emotional intelligence on job satisfaction.
3. To study the interactional effect of gender and Emotional intelligence on job satisfaction.
HYPOTHESIS OF THE STUDY
1. There is no significant difference in job satisfaction of Male and Female of secondary school teachers
2. There is significant difference between Emotional intelligence and Job satisfaction of secondary school teachers.
3. There is no significant difference between low Emotional intelligence and high Emotional intelligence groups of secondary school Teachers on the scores of job satisfaction belonging to Male and Female.
DATABASE AND RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
There in present study, 220 teachers of Govt. secondary and privately managed secondary school teachers were selected sample.110 male teachers with privately managed secondary school and Govt. secondary schools and 110 female teachers with privately managed secondary schools and Govt. secondary schools were under taken from Kangra district in randomly selected tehsil. These randomly selected tehsil is taken from Kangra district. In the present study, gender (Male and Female) and the Emotional Intelligence were taken as independent variables and Job satisfaction was taken to be dependent Variables. . For “Teachers Job satisfaction and Emotional Intelligence questionnaire was used Teachers Job satisfaction Questionnaire was constructed and standardized by Pramod Kumar (D. Phil), D.N. Mutha (M,sc., M,Ed. Ph.D.). This questionnaire contains 29 items and “Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire was constructed and standardized by Anukool Hyde, Sanjyot lethe and Upinder dhar. This questionnaire contains 34 items”. The entire items except 6 and 29 are positively worded. All these items are given 9 score of '1' for positive response except for items 6 and 29, in which case reverse is applicable. The total score varies from 6 to 29 showing lowest job satisfaction to highest job satisfaction for the subject. In case of questionnaire of emotional intelligence manual scoring is done conveniently, hence no scoring key is provided. Each statement is scored 5 for strongly agree, 4 for agree, 3 for neutral, 2 for disagree and 1 for strongly disagree. The 2x2 “Analysis of variance” is employed for studying the main effects and Interactional affects of sex of teachers and Emotional intelligence of teachers on job satisfaction.
DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION
Reliability of data
Reliability of Job Satisfaction Questionnaire: The Split – half reliability of the test applying spearman – brown formula is .95 (N=100) with an infer of reliability of. 97. The test- retest reliability of the test is .73 (N=60); time interval =3 mints with an index of reliability .85. The r-value .95 and .75 respectively, have been found to be significant at 0.1 level showing that the questionnaire is highly reliability both in terms of its internal consistency and stability of score.
Reliability of Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire: The reliability of the scale was determined by calculating reliability co-efficient on a sample of 200 subjects. The split half reliability co-efficient was found to be 0.88.
Table – 1 Job Satisfaction with respect to their Emotional intelligence.
* Significant at 0.05 level of confidence
Main effects : Gender
Table 1 is indicative of the fact that the F-value for the main effects of sex on job satisfaction has come out to be 0.37 which is not significant at 0.05 level of confidences for 1/119 df. From this it may be inferred that there is no significant difference in the job satisfaction of male and female teachers. In other words, it may be said that, the male and female secondary school teachers do not differ in job satisfaction.
Table 1, it can be see that the computed F-value for the main effect of Emotional intelligence on job satisfaction has come out to be 11.68, which is significant at 0.05 level of confidence for 1/119 df. From this it may be inferred that there exists a significant difference in job satisfaction of high Emotional intelligence and low emotional intelligence of teachers.
Two Way Interactions
Gender- Emotional Intelligence
Table 1 Show that computed value of F for the interaction of sex and Emotional intelligence and jobs satisfaction has come out to be 0.216, which is not significant at 0.05 level of confidence 1/119 df. From this, it may be inferred that there is no significant effect of gender and Emotional intelligence on job satisfaction of secondary school teachers
The following are the conclusions drawn from the preset study on the job satisfaction of secondary school teachers
1. There is no job satisfaction among male and female teachers of secondary
2. There is job satisfaction among teachers of high Emotional intelligence and
low Emotional intelligence of secondary school.
3. There is no significant interactional effect of the gender and emotional
intelligence on job satisfaction of secondary school teacher.
DELIMITATIONS AND EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS
The study was confined to district Kangra of Himachal Pradesh and the study was restricted to only male and female of secondary school teacher. The study is very beneficial to improve the satisfaction level and emotional intelligence of teacher, so it has following educational implications:
1. From the present study, we found that the teacher of secondary school have no job satisfaction. Hence, it suggests that salary structure of the secondary school teachers should be improved.
2. From the present study it is found that there is little bit difference job satisfaction of high emotionally intelligent and low emotionally intelligent teachers. Hence, it is suggested that equal opportunities should be provide to all the teachers of secondary school.
3. To overcome the job satisfaction among teacher, it is suggested that we should provide good environmental facilities.
4. From the present study we read many reviews and find out that teachers are dissatisfied with their job. Reasons for that there is lack of audio visual aids. Hence, it is suggested it should be provided in the schools.
5. To overcome the dissatisfaction among teachers, it is suggested that we should provide good physical infrastructure in schools.
6. To overcome the dissatisfaction among the teachers, it is suggested that workload should reduce over the teachers.
7. To overcome the dissatisfaction among teachers, it is suggested that o teachers should give authorities for making syllabus according to the children’s mental ability and potential.
SUGGESTION FOR FURTHER AND FUTURE RESEARCH
In the light of the present research and its results, it is suggested to undertake the following studies in the methodical way.
1. Studies may be undertaken to study the job satisfaction of teachers with reference to their emotional intelligence working in primary schools and senior secondary schools.
2. Studies may be undertaken to study the job satisfaction of teachers with reference to their emotional intelligence working in rural and urban schools.
3. Studies may be identifying the psychological factors that contribute for
job satisfaction with reference to their emotional intelligence.
4. Studies may be undertaken to investigate job satisfaction of male and female teachers of govt. And private secondary schools.
5. Similarly studies can be conducted on nursery and primary secondary
6. Studies can be extended to different university of Himachal Pradesh.
7. Job satisfaction of secondary school teachers on the basis of qualification
8. A comparative study of job satisfaction with reference to their emotional intelligence of male and female secondary school teachers can be studied.
1. Goldman, D. (2001). Emotional intelligence: Issures in paradigm building. In C. Cherniss and D. Goldman (Ed’s ), the Emotionally intelligence workplace. San Francidsco: Jossey- Bass.
2. Goleman, D. (1995) Emotional Intelligence: why it can matter more than JQ for character, health and lifelong achievement, New York, Ny: Bantam press.
3. Mayer, J., and Salovy, P. (1993). The intelligence of emotional intelligence. Intelligence, 17, 433-442.
4. Maslow Abraham (1954). Motivation and Personality. New York: Harper. pp. 236.
5. Herzberg F, Mausner B, Snyderman BB (1959). The motivation to work. New York Wiley. pp. 157.
6. Diaz-Serrano, L. and Cabral Vieira, J.A., Low pay, higher pay and job satisfaction within the European Union:Empirical evidence from fourteen countries , IZA Discussion Papers No. 1558, Institute for the Study of Labour(IZA), 2005, available at: http://ideas.repec.org/p/iza/izadps/dp1558.html
7. Gazioglu, S. and Tansel, A., Job satisfaction in Britain: Individual and job-related factors , Economic Research Centre Working Papers in Economics 03/03, Ankara, 2002, available at:
8. Spector, P.E., Job satisfaction: Application, assessment, causes, and consequences , Sage, London, 1997.
9. Nguyen, A.N., Taylor, J. and Bradley, S., Relative pay and job satisfaction: Some new evidence, Working Paper 045, Department of Economics, Lancaster University Management School, 2003a, available at: http://www.lums.lancs.ac.uk/publications/viewpdf/000187/.
Pacific Institute of Management, Pacific Hills, Airport Road, Udaipur - 313001,