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January 2015

A STUDY OF SOCIAL VALUES AND SELF-CONCEPT OF COMMERCE STUDENTS

Dr. Surendra Kumar Tiwari, Principal, Gulabbai Yadav Smriti Shiksha Mahavidyalaya Borawan.

Dr. Vaishali Tiwari, Guest Faculty Commerce, Govt. P.G. College, Khargone

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Abstract

We are in an age of GLOBAL DISASTER, An extensive use of nuclear weapons, violence, terrorism, massive exploitation of natural resources has spread out in almost all part of the globe, consumerism is not allowing to think about the limited resources of the earth and the needs of others. lrustration l lonel iness  insecurity, depression, aimlessness of life and erosion of values have covered all most all human beings which in turn leading to drug addiction, alcoholism and suicide. News channels are daily reporting, the examples of deteriorating values in society specially in adolescent groups. It is quite surprising that school going children are involved in   destructive anti social activities. What we have to pause and reflect being taught in our schools and what is being given by our society? What is the reason behind all this?

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KEYWORDS: SOCIAL VALUES,  SELF-CONCEPT ,SELF ESTEEM.

·        INTRODUCTION&

                                    The most prominent reason is the unbalanced growth of science and technology which has given tremendous emphasis on the materialistic  life and a very little effort has been done for humanistic value like cooperation, concern for others, tolerance, peace etc. Today cognitive domain is gaining more emphasis and importance  i.e. more emphasis is laid on competition, material prosperity and power. We are not giving that much attention to affective domain i.e. we are not looking for aesthetic detachment, spirituality, tranquility. We are just forcing our children to get ready for the mental fight but not for a social life. As a result we are going ahead on the path of economic development but at the same time we are much lagging on the path of SELF life.  Social values is that complex of knowledge, values, attitudes and abilities which contribute to the development of a sound moral character, a sense of community , and competence in responding to the personal, social, and cultural aspects of life. Changes in social values occur due to; scientific findings, evolution of religious belief, changes in moral values, the persistence of vision- driven advocates, media, changes in the economy, technological innovations, demograph.   Self- concept is the set of attributes, abilities, attitudes and values that an individual believes defines who he or she is. It is our perception about ourselves. We could consider self-concept to be our attempt to explain ourselves, to ourselves, to build a scheme ( in piaget's terms) that organizes our impressions, feelings and surroundings. "Self-concept is the core or centre of gravity of the personality patterns."

·        OBJECTIVES :-

1.         To study the relationship between the social value and self concept of the student.  (Correlation ' r ')

2.         To study the influence and interaction of gender and area on   self- concept. (2x2 Factorial design ANOVA of unequal cell size )

 

·        Hypothesis-

(1)          There is no significant relationship between social values and self concept.

(2)          There is no significant influence of gender on self concept.

·        POPULATION AND SAMPLE OF THE STUDY

                    The students of IX grade studying in Hr. Sec. schools of Khargone Tehsil of M.P. constituted the population of the study. The sample comprising of 126 students (69 Boys and 57 girls) were selected by employing random Sampling technique. The sample was representative of gender, area and type of schools, social values and self–concept.

Table 1. Gender wise distribution of sample

S.N

Name of the school

Area

Gender

Total

Boys

Girls

1

Govt. Hr. Sec. School Jetapur

Rural

17

13

30

2

Govt. Higher Secondary School Khargone

Urban

19

16

35

 

Total (ii)

 

36

29

65

3

Vivekanand Hr. Sec. School, Jetapur Khargone

Rural

17

13

30

4

Sarsawati Hr. Sec School,  Khargone

Urban

16

15

31

 

Total (ii)

 

33

28

61

 

Grand Total = Total (ii) +Total (ii)

 

69

57

126

 

·        Description of the tool-

              In this study, data related to self concept were collected by administering the standardized tools. For assessing ' social Values" the researcher had developed the questionnaire. The dialed information regarding these tools has been given in the table 2.

Table 2. Tool wise developer, target group, Language reliability and validity,

S.N.

Name of the Tool

developer

Target

Language

Reliability

1

Children self – concept scale (CSCS)

By Dr. S.P. Ahluwalia

12 to 18 years Boys and girls

Hindi

Test retest reliability coefficient

0.83, split Half coefficient 0.74 face, factorial and validity 

2.

Social value questionnaire 

By Investigator

secondary student

Hindi

face content and con current validity

CSCS:-

                                  Out of all the available tools for collecting data for self- concept the investigator chose the CSCS developed by Dr. S. P. Ahluwalia. It was an Hindi version of the original tool developed by piers- Harris.

                  The reason for selecting this particular tool was that out of all the available tools, this was the only one pertaining to the study undertaken by the investigator. In this study the investigator had taken secondary students into consideration. Therefore the tool developed by Dr. S.P. Ahluwalia is suitable as per the requirement of the study.

·        Analysis&Interpretation of data

1. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SOCIAL VALUES AND SELF-CONCEPT.

              The first objective was to study the relationship between social values and self- concept. Considering both the variable as independent variable, the data were analyzed with the help of Pearson's product moment correlation and the results given in table 3.

         

 

             Table 3: Summary of correlation 'r' between social values and self concept.

                                          

2.Relationship of social value with self concept

                                Form table 3, it is evident that the correlation between social values and total self concept is 0.690 which is significant at 0.05 level. So it can be inferred that social values and self- concept significantly influence each other. Hence, the null hypothesis namely, "There is no significant relationships  between social  values and self-concept", is rejected. It May, therefore be concluded that social values and self- concept are highly correlated .Also Social values are found significantly correlated with physical appearance and Attributes (moderate correlation); Happiness and satisfaction (moderate correlation); Anxiety (low correlation); popularity (Negligible correlation); Intellectual and school status (negligible correlation) at 0.05 level of significance. Social values are not found significantly correlated with behaviour at 0.05 level of significance. 

3. Relationship among different component of self-concept.

               From table 3, it is evident that

(a)  Total self-concept is significantly correlated with physical appearance and attributes (High correlation); Anxiety (Moderate correlation); Happiness and satisfaction (High correlation); popularity (moderate correlation) at 0.05 level of significance. While total self- concept is not found significantly correlated with Behaviour; Intellectual and school status.

(b)  Behaviour; Intellectual and school status are not found significantly correlated with any of the component of self-concept. at 0.05 level of significance .

(c)  Physical appearance and attributes is found moderately correlated with, popularity; Happiness and satisfaction at 0.05 level.

(d)  Correlation of anxiety with popularity; physical appearance and attributes is found low at 0.05 level of significance.

(e)  Correction between popularity; Happiness and satisfaction is found low at 0.05 level of significance.

4.         INFLUENCE AND INTERACTION OF GENDER AND AREA ON SELF-CONCEPT.

       The second objective was to study the influence and interaction of gender and area on self-concept. On the basis of gender the group was divided into two groups. These were boys and girls. On the basis of area the group was divided into two groups. These were rural and urban area. Thus the data were analyzed with the help of 2x2 factorial Design ANOVA of unequal cell size and the results are given in table.4.

       Table 4: Summary of 2x2 factorial design ANOVA for self- concept.

Univariate Analysis of Variance

Univariate Analysis of Variance

                                       

                                             

                                               Profile Plots

 

                         

                               Graph 4.2

5. Influence of gender on self- concept.

              Form table 4, it is evident that the F-value for gender is 11.616 with d.f. 1/122 which is significant at 0.05 level. It shows that mean score of self- concept of students belonging to two levels of gender i.e. boys and girls, differ significantly. So it can be inferred that the gender significantly influence the self-concept.

                  Form graph 4, it is evident that the boys have higher self- concept than that of girls. Hence the null hypothesis, namely. "There is no significant influence of gender on self-concept". is rejected. It may therefore be inferred that the both boys and girls were found to have self- concept to the different extent.

6. Influence of area on self-concept.

                  Form table 4, it is evident that the F-value for area is 23.574 with d.f.1/122 which is significant at 0.05 level. It shows that mean score of self- concept of students belonging to the two levels of area i.e. rural and urban, differ significantly. So it can be inferred that the area significantly influence the self-concept.

                  Form graph 4.2, it is evident that the student of rural area have lower self-concept than the students of urban areas. In this context, the null Hypothesis, "There is no significant influence of area on self-concept", is rejected. It may, therefore, be inferred that self-concept was not found independent of area.

7.Influence and interaction of gender and area on self-concept.

                  From table 4.2, it is evident that the F-value far the interaction between gender and area is .008 with d.f. 1/122 which is not significant at 0.05 level. It shows that there is not any significant effect of interaction between gender and area on self concept. In this context the null hypothesis namely," There is no significant interaction of gender and area on self- concept" is not rejected. It may, therefore, be inferred that self-concept of secondary students was found to be independent of interaction between gender and area.

2.         INFLUENCE AND INTERACTION OF GENDER AND AREA ON SOCIAL VALUES.

                  The third objective was to study the influence and interaction of gender and area on social values. On the basis of gender the group was divided into two groups. These were boys and girls. On the basis of area the group was divided into two groups. These were Rural and urban area. Thus the data were analyzed with the help of 2x2 factorial designs ANOVA of unequal cell size and the results are given in table 5.

Table 5: Summary of 2x2 factorial design ANOVA for social value.

Univariate Analysis of Variance

Univariate Analysis of Variance

                                            

 

                                                                 

 

Profile Plots

 

                          

                        Graph 4.3

·        FINDINGS

                 The following were the findings of the present study:- 

1.             Social values and self-concept of secondary students was found highly correlated ( Positive correlation)

2.            Self-concept of Boys was found higher than that of girls.

3.            Social values of girls was not found significant different than that of boys.

4.            Self-concept of government schools students was found lower than that of non government schools students.

5.            Social values were found significantly influenced by type of school.

6.            Self –concept of secondary student was not found to be independent of area and type of school.

7.            Social values of secondary student was found to be dependent on interaction between area and type of school.

     

·        EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS.

            Present study revealed that social values and self concept are positively correlated. It will help the society members, school administrators teachers, parents to understand and orient the concept of self of children to develop a positive sense towards the society. It will also help the policy maker, curriculum designer, while planning to prepare child as a self- reliant person with high concern for society.

               Since self-concept of student was found independent of interaction of gender and area; gender and types of school, and the social values was found independent of interaction between gender and area; gender and type of schools. Thus school authorities may plan different activities keeping these findings in view and can help students to achieve a higher self concept which in turns leads to social values of higher order.

               The social values and self-concept were found to be dependent on interaction between area and type of schools. Therefore while deciding for value inculcation, this interaction must be kept in mind.

References books-

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9.      George, J. and Ragendran, K. "Value of late adolescents". Journal of psychological Researches, 2007, Vol 51, No. 2, P. 102-106

10.   Gerrig J. Richard & Zimbardo G. Phillip (2006). Psychology and life 17th edn. Singapore; Pearson Education, P.401-483.

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12.   Marsh et. al. (1983). "Self- concept : the construct validity of interpretation based on the SDQ", Journal of Personality and social Psychology, 45,173-187

13.   Marsh, H.W. & Shavelson, R. (1985). "Self- Concept: Its Multifaceted, Hierchial Structure". Educational  psychologist 20,107,123.

14.   Ramahariya, B. (2003). Analysis of self- concept. academic anxiety and achievement in mathematics of Navodaya and Kendriya Vidyalaya students. Unpublished M.Ed. (Ele.) dissertation. Bhopal : RIE.

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