Impact of Age on the Perception of School Teachers for Overall   HRD Practices

Deepa Katiyal : Lecturer ,IMS DAVV ,Indore.

Dr. Suresh Patidar: Reader,IIPS, DAVV , Indore

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ABSTRACT

Education is a unique and great investment in human capital for the present and the future. Education is an important factor for the progress and all round development of a country. It plays a vital role in economic and social development and also for national integration of a country. The Human Resource Development is concerned with policies, systems and practices for the employees to improve their capacities and capabilities, considering the overall goal of the organization and aim of utilizing the optimum level. Implication of effective HRD Practices in education are: Continuous professional growth of teachers; Better performance  in all activities; Job satisfaction among teachers and others; Increase in efficiency of all schools personnels in their duties; Dedication, loyalty and sense of belongingness towards the institution; Better interpersonal relations. These all motives can only be achieved by strong co-ordination between HRD practices and mechanisms, that’s why our main area of research in this paper will be to find out the impact of age of the teachers on the HRD Mechanisms and Overall HRD Practices. This paper will also describe the importance of HRD mechanism in education, how we can improve the Overall HRD practices in schools. The research is done on the schools of Indore in which data was collected through a questionnaire and Data Analysis was done by using ANOVA and LSD Post Hoc Test.

Keyword: Human Resource, Human Resource Development, HRD mechanisms, HRD practices, ANOVA, LSD Post Hoc Test.

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INTRODUCTION

Introduction of human resource development (HRD) in education is need of the hour as maximum manpower is utilized in school education system. The greatest resource of the world is the human beings, without whom nothing could ever be a resource.

The concept of HRD is comparatively of recent origin, but since the beginning of civilization the development of human beings has been in existence in different forms. HRD is a set of inter related activities by which human potentialities are assessed, selectively upgraded and appropriately deployed for achievement of organizational goals. The main aim is to bring about the all round development of the people in the organization thus HRD is the heart of the organization .HRD is important in fast changing education system and its environment. The changing environment includes increase in cut-throat competition in the schools.

Teacher’s importance in modern era has acquired new dimension. They not only have to impart subject matter to the pupil but also help him in use of knowledge for developing the abilities and talents with which he is born. If we wish to bring a productive change, to raise the standard of education, it is imperative to recruit teachers who not only have proficiency in their subject, but also have required a positive attitude towards education and children. Looking at all these aspects it has been realized that lot of research has to be done to find out the perception of the teachers towards training and development, performance and reward systems, HRD climate, Career planning and development. The need is to find out the present Overall HRD Practices going on in the schools and also how to improve it in the coming future.

LITERATURE REVIEW

Human resource development (HRD) mechanism has been an important area of research practice. The purpose of HRD policy is the development of Human Resources. In a widely cited paper, (Sriyen, 1997) found human resource development as the process of increasing knowledge, skills, and the capacity of people in society. In economic terms, it could be described as the accumulation of human capital and its effective investment in the development of an economy. Performance appraisal and rewards can help the teachers in fostering their own development. In addition, the appraisal is a good tool for monitoring the performances of the teachers all intentionally for the purpose of the schools. It is also a good record for the improvement of the teachers (Monyatsi, 2008). Teacher learning is a lifelong activity that starts from his/her school days and continues throughout the life. The training techniques through which a teacher was taught during his/her school days, plays effective role in the techniques he/she uses in his/her own teaching (Schwille, Dembele and Schubert 2007). Chunn and Thacker (1993) believed training effectiveness is a very important tool for modern organizations where attitudinal change towards new programs was needed, effective training programs attained positive alteration of human behavior, which had been crucial to achieve desired results .

Human resource development climate contributes to the organizations wellbeing and self-renewing capabilities resulting in increasing the enabling capabilities of individuals, team and the entire organization. A review organization that has better HRD climate and processes is likely to be more effective than an organization that does not have them (Venkateswaran 1997). Career planning is a tool that aligns strategy with future HR needs and encourages employee to strive for his personal development (William et al, 1996). By increasing employee participation, the firm will benefit from increase in productivity of the employee due to increased commitment of the employee. Financial participation Schemes were more beneficial for the organizations than the associated cost (Summers & Hyman, 2005). Use of best HR practices shows a stronger association with firm’s productivity in high growth industry (Datta et al. 2003).

OBJECTIVES

1.             To study the effect of age on the perception of teachers towards Performance and Reward system in the schools.

2.             To study the effect of age on the perception of teachers towards Training Techniques in the schools.

3.             To study the effect of age on the perception of teachers towards HRD Climate in the schools.

4.             To study the effect of age on the perception of teachers towards Training Effectiveness in the schools.

5.             To study the effect of age on the perception of teachers towards Career Planning and Development in the schools.

6.             To study the effect of age on the perception of teachers towards Overall HRD Practices in the schools.

HYPOTHESES

 Ho1: There will be no significant effect of age on the perception of teachers towards Performance and Reward System in the schools.

Ho2: There will be no significant effect of age on the perception of teachers towards Training Technique in the schools.

Ho3: There will be no significant effect of age on the perception of teachers towards HRD Climate in the schools.

Ho4: There will be no significant effect of age on the perception of teachers towards Training Effectiveness in the schools.

Ho5: There will be no significant effect of age on the perception of teachers towards Career Planning and Development in the schools.

Ho6: There will be no significant effect of age on the perception of teachers towards Overall HRD Practices in the schools.

METHODOLOGY

In this study the population consisted of the school teachers working in CBSE and MPBSE schools of Indore.  312 Teachers working in public and private schools of Indore were taken as the sample for research. The questionnaire scale was designed on the basis of available literature. Further academicians, professionals, researchers and other experts in the area of Human Resource Development were also consulted for the development of the questionnaire. It was based on Likert Scale which consisted of 5 point scale (Strongly Disagree, Disagree, Neutral, Agree, Strongly Agree.  Data was entered in SPSS 16 version, Statistical Package for Social Sciences for analysis. After Descriptive analysis ANOVA statistical tool and LSD Post Hoc Test was applied for Data analysis.

RESULTS AND FINDING

The research was done to find out the perception of different age groups towards the HRD Mechanisms in the schools. Under HRD Mechanisms five factors were taken: Performance and Reward system, Training Techniques, HRD Climate, Training Effectiveness, Career Planning, and Overall HRD Practices was also studied. The age group was divided into three groups: Young – 21-35 years, Middle- 35-50 years, Seniors – 50 and above. 110 from young group, 153 from middle group and 49 from senior group of teachers participated in the research.

 The results of the statistical analysis are given below.

a)   Effect of Age on the Perception of Teachers towards Performance and Reward System

It was tested by applying one way ANOVA statistics.

Table 1. Effect of age on the Performance and Reward System

ANOVA

Dependent Variable

Groups

Sum of Squares

df

Mean Square

F

Sig.

Performance and

Reward System

Between Groups

2876.792

2

1438.396

10.612

.000

Within Groups

41883.820

309

135.546

 

Total

44760.612

311

 

 

The F value 10.612 is significant at 0.05 levels with degree of freedom df equal to 2/309.It means there is significant difference among teachers belonging to different age groups in terms of PRS. Therefore the null hypothesis stating,There will be no significant effect of age on the perception of teachers towards Performance and Reward System in the school” is rejected. Further to know the difference among the age groups LSD Post Hoc Test was applied. The results are given below:

Table 2. LSD Post Hoc Test of age for Performance and Reward System

LSD

Dependent Variable

Age

(I)

Age

(J)

Mean Difference

(I-J)

Std. Error

Sig.

95% Confidence Interval

Lower Bound

Upper Bound

Performance and

Reward System

Young

21-35years

Middle

35-50 years

.50564

1.45539

.729

-2.3581

3.3694

Senior

50+ years

8.61596*

1.99962

.000

4.6814

12.5506

Middle

35-50 years

Young

21-35 years

-.50564

1.45539

.729

-3.3694

2.3581

Senior

50+ years

8.11031*

1.91107

.000

4.3500

11.8707

Senior

50+ years

Young

21-35 years

-8.61596*

1.99962

.000

-12.5506

-4.6814

Middle

35-50 years

-8.11031*

1.91107

.000

-11.8707

-4.3500

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Teachers belonging to the age group of 21-35years and 35-50 years had similar perception , whereas teachers belonging to the age group of 21-35 years and 35 -50 years had better perception than the teachers of the age group of 50 years and above, in terms of PRS.

 b) Effect of Age on the Perception of Teachers towards Training Techniques used in the Schools

It was tested by applying one way ANOVA statistics.

 

Table 3. Effect of age on the Training Techniques

ANOVA

Dependent Variable

Groups

Sum of Squares

df

Mean Square

F

Sig.

Training

Techniques

Between Groups

29.310

2

14.655

.390

.678

Within Groups

11621.036

309

37.609

 

Total

11650.346

311

 

 

 

The F value .390 is not significant at 0.05 levels with degree of freedom df equal to 2/309.It means there is no significant difference among teachers belonging to different age groups in terms of TT. Therefore the null hypothesis stating,There will be no significant effect of age on the perception of teachers towards Training Techniques used in the schools” is accepted. Further to know the difference among the age groups LSD Post Hoc Test was applied but no significant difference was found in the perception of the three groups.

 c) Effect of Age on the Perception of Teachers towards HRD Climate in the Schools

It was tested by applying one way ANOVA statistics.

Table 4. Effect of age on the HRD Climate

ANOVA

Dependent Variable

Groups

Sum of Squares

df

Mean Square

F

Sig.

HRD Climate

Between Groups

95.462

2

47.731

4.038

.019

Within Groups

3652.509

309

11.820

 

 

Total

3747.971

311

 

 

 

 

The F value 4.038 is significant at 0.05 levels with degree of freedom df equal to 2/309.It means there is a significant difference among teachers belonging to different age groups in terms of HRDC. Therefore the null hypothesis stating,There will be no significant effect of age on the perception of teachers towards HRD Climate in the schools” is rejected. Further to know the difference among the age groups LSD Post Hoc Test was applied .The results are given below:

Table 5. LSD Post Hoc Test of age for HRD Climate

LSD

Dependent Variable

Age     (I)

Age        (J)

Mean Difference

(I-J)

Std. Error

Sig.

95% Confidence Interval

Lower Bound

Upper Bound

HRD Climate

  Young

 21-35 years

Middle   35-50 years

-1.02721*

.42979

.017

-1.8729

-.1815

Senior 50+Years

-1.42004*

.59050

.017

-2.5819

-.2581

Middle

 35-50 years

Young   21-35 years

1.02721*

.42979

.017

.1815

1.8729

Senior 50+ years

-.39282

.56435

.487

-1.5033

.7176

Senior

 50+ years

Young   21-35 years

1.42004*

.59050

.017

.2581

2.5819

Middle   35-50 years

.39282

.56435

.487

-.7176

1.5033

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Teachers belonging to the age group of 35-50 years and 50 years and above had better perception than the teachers of 21-35 years of age group whereas  the teachers belonging to the age group 35-50 years had similar perception with teachers of age group 50 years and above., in terms of HRDC.

d) Effect of Age on the Perception of Teachers towards Training Effectiveness in the Schools 

It was tested by applying one way ANOVA statistics.

Table 6. Effect of age on the Training Effectiveness

ANOVA

Dependent Variable

Groups

Sum of Squares

df

Mean Square

F

Sig.

Training Effectiveness

Between Groups

1058.616

2

529.308

29.010

.000

Within Groups

5637.999

309

18.246

 

 

Total

6696.615

311

 

 

 

 

The F value 29.010 is significant at 0.05 levels with degree of freedom df equal to 2/309.It means there is significant difference among teachers belonging to different age groups in terms of TE. Therefore the null hypothesis stating,There will be no significant effect of age on the perception of teachers towards Training Effectiveness in the schools” is rejected. Further to know the difference among the age groups LSD Post Hoc Test was applied .The results are given below:

Table 7. LSD Post Hoc Test of age for Training Effectiveness

LSD

Dependent Variable

Age

(I)

Age

(J)

Mean Difference (I-J)

Std. Error

Sig.

95% Confidence Interval

Lower Bound

Upper Bound

Training Effectiv-eness

Young

21-35

  years

Middle                   35-50 years

.10386

.53397

.846

-.9468

1.1545

Senior              50+ years

5.12134*

.73365

.000

3.6778

6.5649

Middle 35-50 years

Young                   21-35 years

-.10386

.53397

.846

-1.1545

.9468

Senior            50+ years

5.01747*

.70116

.000

3.6378

6.3971

Senior 50+ years

Young    21-35 years

-5.12134*

.73365

.000

-6.5649

-3.6778

Middle           35-50 years

-5.01747*

.70116

.000

-6.3971

-3.6378

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Teachers belonging to the age group of 21-35years and 35-50 years had similar perception but the teachers belonging to the age group of 21-35years and 35-50 years had better perception than the teachers of the age group of 50 years and above, in terms of TE.

 e) Effect of Age on the Perception of Teachers towards Career Planning and Development in the Schools

It was tested by applying one way ANOVA statistics.

Table 7. Effect of age on the Career Planning and Development

ANOVA

Dependent Variable

Groups

Sum of Squares

df

Mean Square

F

Sig.

Career Planning and

Development

Between Groups

35.195

2

17.598

1.643

.195

Within Groups

3310.417

309

10.713

 

 

Total

3345.612

311

 

 

 

                                                                                       

The F value 1.643 is not significant at 0.05 levels with degree of freedom df equal to 2/309.It means there is no significant difference among teachers belonging to different age groups in terms of CPD. Therefore the null hypothesis stating,There will be no significant effect of age on the perception of teachers towards Career Planning and Development in the schools” is accepted. Further to know the difference among the age groups LSD Post Hoc Test was applied but no significant difference was found in the perception of the three group.

f) Effect of Age on the Perception of Teachers towards Overall HRD Practices in the Schools

It was tested by applying one way ANOVA statistics.

Table 8. Effect of age on the Overall HRD Practices

ANOVA

Dependent Variable

Groups

Sum of Squares

df

Mean Square

F

Sig.

Overall HRD Practices

Between Groups

6683.267

2

3341.634

8.469

.000

Within Groups

121917.704

309

394.556

 

 

Total

128600.971

311

 

 

 

 

The F value 8.469 is significant at 0.05 levels with degree of freedom df equal to 2/309.It means there is significant difference among teachers belonging to different age groups in terms of Overall HRD Practices. Therefore the null hypotheses stating,There will be no significant effect of age on the perception of teachers towards Overall HRD Practices in the schools” is rejected. Further to know the difference among the age groups LSD Post Hoc Test was applied .The results are given below:

Table 9. LSD Post Hoc Test of age for Overall HRD Practices

LSD

Dependent Variable

Age      (I)

Age     (J)

Mean Difference   (I-J)

Std. Error

Sig.

95% Confidence Interval

Lower Bound

Upper Bound

Overall HRD Practices

Young

21-35 years

Middle-50 years

-.26928

2.48308

.914

-5.1552

4.6166

Senior 50+ years

12.55918*

3.41160

.000

5.8463

19.2721

Middle

35-50 years

Young 21-35 years

.26928

2.48308

.914

-4.6166

5.1552

Senior 50+ years

12.82846*

3.26051

.000

6.4128

19.2441

Senior

50+

Years

Young 21-35 years

-12.55918*

3.41160

.000

-19.2721

-5.8463

Senior 50+ years

-12.82846*

3.26051

.000

-19.2441

-6.4128

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Teachers belonging to the age group of 21-35years and 35-50 years had similar perception but the teachers belonging to the age group of 21-35years and 35-50 years had better perception than the teachers of the age group of 50 years and above, in terms of Overall HRD practices.

CONCLUSION

The age of the teachers play a very important role in their perception for HRD Practices in the schools.. The age of the teachers play a very important role in deciding the attitude of the teachers. This was very much evident in this research.

 The teachers of the age group 21-35 years have strong perceptions about Performance and Reward System .They wanted the performance appraisals in a very systematic manner, it should be fair and evaluation results should give teachers an opportunity for promotions and overall progress in the profession. The age group of senior teachers 50 years and above were less concerned with the promotions and reward system ,they were more bothered about the HRD Climate of the schools in which they wanted good and cordial relationship among teachers and Principal, respect for experienced teachers  and they were very resistant for change. Teachers’ from age group 35-50 years were most professional in their job.

REFERENCES

 

Chunn, G. C. and Thacker, C. (1993). A manager’s role in developing and reinforcing strong    training. http://www.questia.com. Accessed at 4:00 pm on 12th March 2012.

Datta, K., Guthrie, J. and Wright, P. (2003). HRM and Firm productivity: Does industry matter. National Academy of Management Conference: WA, 69-75.

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Schwille, J., Dembele, M. and Schubert, J. (2007). Global Perspectives on Teacher Learning: Improving Policy and Practice. UNESCO: IIEP, Paris, 52-54.

Sriyan, D. S. (1997). Human resources development for competitiveness: A priority for employers. ILO workshop on employers’ organizations in Asia Pacific in the Twenty First Century, Turin: Italy, 39-44.

Summers, J. and Hyman, J. (2005). Employee participation and company performance. Joseph Rowntree Foundation, 90-97.

Venkateswaran, K. P. (1997).  A Note on HRD Climate. Vikalp Publications, 51-53.

 

         Verma, M. K. (1995). Nurturing Change through Your Human Assets. Sage India, 60.

 

William, B., Werther, Jr. and Davis, K. (1996). Human Resource and Personnel Management. 5th Edition McGraw-hill Inc., 317.