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Editorial Board A Refereed Monthly International Journal of Management
Prof. B. P. Sharma
(Editor in Chief)
Prof. Mahima Birla
(Additional Editor in Chief)
Dr. Khushbu Agarwal
(Editor)
Ms. Asha Galundia
(Circulation Manager)

 Editorial Team

Dr. Devendra Shrimali
Dr. Dharmesh Motwani
 

Television Advertising Effectiveness: A Cognitive Recall Mechanism

Dr. Saumendra Das

Faculty of Management Studies

Aditya Institute of Technology & Management

Tekkali, Srikakulam Dist.

Abstract:

Advertisements are the part of our lives. When we do something, where ever we stay or how we behave ourselves, advertising became the integral part of our life. Advertisements in television influenced us in many occasions for which it affects a cognitive recall approach for every television viewers. In the present study it observed that while a viewer watch a serial in television he/she often forgot the advertisements which telecasted in between the programme. But it effects when the viewer watch the same advertisement repeatedly or in different programme, however the cognitive recall response reveals the purchase action. The present paper made an attempt to build a relationship between the advertising effectiveness in television and its programmes.  

Keywords: Advertising, Television, Family Drama, Ad effectiveness, Cognitive recall etc.

Introduction:

Advertising is becoming a considerable instrument to convince customers through its messages to buy products or services at different point of time. It plays pivotal role in both financial and commercial objectives. Of this age, marketers are now informing, educating and facilitating customers in a novel and innovative way through their advertising messages. Contemporary marketers are developing new concepts on effectiveness of advertising to impress customer in various ways (O’Donohoe, 1995).

Herein, advertisements have become an integral part of human life. Effectiveness of advertising depends on customer’s response towards advertisements and their attitudes. Advertisements are considered effective by their capability to convey the message or to promote sales (Eachambadi, 1994).

Particularly, placement of product is a paid message to influence viewers through a planned and modest entry of a branded product into television programs. Advertising agencies are involved in placing the client’s product on TV shows (Balasubramanian, 1994).

There is increasing number of advertisements for any program on television. Viewers find more advertisements on certain television channels than programs. Length of commercial break depends on popularity of the program. Length of advertisements has become a measuring tool for popularity of a TV show (Rai, 2008). Probably it, stimulate the messages of advertisements through its pervading nature of the advertisements. The present article entitled “Television Advertising: A Cognitive Recall Mechanism” is adhere the concept on cognitive recall attitude and its influence on purchase action of the viewers on advertisements after watching various television programmes. The research deals with the favourable and unfavourable attitude of the TV viewers on advertising and its recall mechanism. The liking and avoidance character of the viewers on advertisements has recorded in the primary survey which compared with different television channels and television serials.

Objectives:

  1. To study the contemporary issues on advertising effectiveness of the television viewers.
  2. To understand the theory and concept on cognitive approaches in advertising.
  3. To analyse the advertising effectiveness of a product with its recall-ability of the television viewers’ in common.
  4. To suggest the necessary measures to improve the effectiveness of advertising in television.

Methodology:

The present research is a complete set of exploratory research where stratified random sampling of about 598 samples has considered in various geographical areas such as cities of Orissa and Telegana. The major cities viz: Bhubaneswar, Sambalpur and Berhampur of Orissa state as well Hyderabad and Secuderabad of Telegana is considered for sample study where most of the people used to watch Hindi television channels. The cities are across the central, western and southern part of Orissa and capital city of Telegana where most of the people are migrated from different part of the country. In this study, the hypothesis is designed to know the advertising effectiveness of a product and recall-ability of a viewer’s while they watch a television serial. Here correlation and regression test has applied to test the relationship between the independent variable (advertising effectiveness) and dependent variable (various television programmes).

Hypothesis:

H1: Advertising recall-ability of a viewer is associated the demographic behaviour of the television viewers.

H2: Advertising effectiveness of various products in Hindi family television drama (serial) is closely associated with the recall-ability of a viewer and his/her purchase action.

Review of Literature:

Saiganesh and Parameswaran (2012) stated that most of the advertisements are watched during prime time. Media charges high price during prime time. To get returns, advertisers should focus on quality of the ads.

Balasubramanian (1994) suggested product placement is a paid activity seeking to influence viewers through planned and unobtrusive entry of a brand into a television program. Advertising agencies are involved in placing the client’s product in TV shows. A specialist firm may be brought in to liaise between agency and studio. Advertisers are looking for new methods to reach consumers. Placement can be in the form of verbal mentions in dialogue, actual use by a character, visual displays such as a corporate logo on a vehicle or billboard or brands used as set decoration.

Debasish (2012) stated that telecom sector in Odisha was selected to find out the influence of television advertising on consumer attitude formation and purchase intention. Survey was done for mobile handset and mobile service buyers with sample 675 and 657 respectively. Viewers agreed with the cognitive factors in television advertisements.

Mathew and Aswathy (2014) found that the degree of influence of TV ads of FMCG goods on different categories of people like farmers, businessmen, professionals and employed people. Television advertisements, which were telecast at prime time, mobilized potential customers. Television advertisements have brought a paradigm shift by influencing the buyer as an individual.

Ramalingam et al. (2006) suggested that TV as an advertising medium has three key advantages. First, it influences consumers’ tastes and perception. Second, it can reach large audience in a cost-efficient manner. Third, its audio visuals create strong impact. TV has a big impact on viewers   purchasing process.

Mankekar (1999) revealed that since 1990, there is unprecedented growth in the viewership of serialized family dramas in India due to liberalization and privatization. Serials or soap operas as they are known in common parlance, produced for Indian consumers are avidly watched. In spite of rising popularity of reality shows, serials or soap operas, family dramas continue to re-invent their themes and remain unrivalled in terms of their mass appeal. Television is considered as a medium where family dramas attract viewers.

Do Indian TV channels and their programs impact viewers in Bangladesh. Serials are very popular among different ages, sex, educational qualifications etc. Large number of Bangladeshi’s view Indian serials. Star Plus is the most popular channel. Star Plus broadcasts a large number of Hindi serials throughout the day. 68 Indian TV serials are watched regularly (Khanam et al., 2014).

Concepts on Cognitive Recall:        

Advertising is considered as a way to influence the mind of audience. Attitude of a consumer affects the attention to the ad. Low involvement confines with likability of an ad and high involvement reasons why this ad. High involvement is when consumers try to get involved in the content of an ad and this brings about a change in their attitude. This is known as cognitive response. Consumers sometimes support or counter the message content.  Counter arguments (CA) and supportive arguments (SA) occurs when a consumer is viewing an ad or reading a message. Counter arguments are negative while supportive arguments have positive effect on attitude. Cognitive response is acceptance or rejection of the message, depending on his/her involvement in the advertisement (Chunawalla and Sethia, 2008).

To interpret thoughts, consumers are asked to write their intention towards the ad. Cognitive response process associated with attitude towards the brand and purchase intention could be ascertained. Cognitive response is sum of thoughts related to product/message, source oriented and advertisement execution. In product/message thoughts, two types of responses are important i.e. counter arguments (CA) and supportive arguments (SA).

Figure1: Cognitive Response Model

Hierarchy Effect Models of Advertising

            Understanding the response process of consumer’s exposure to advertising is tricky. It may elicit certain behaviour.  Objective of advertisers may relate to cognitive, affective or behavioural aspect.  Certain models were developed to know the attitude and behaviour of respondents towards advertisements. Different models have different ideologies; they together reflect persuasion and belief of respondents towards advertisement. Researchers collect data on different response models which are presented.

Source: Kazmi, S.H.H and Batra, S.K (2007)

Analysis and Interpretation:

In this part of the research, the researcher analysed the collected data with the help of correlation analysis and tested the significance of the hypothesis. Here the correlation between demographic profile of viewers viz. age, marital status, gender, income, occupation and educational qualification and its effectiveness on advertising in selected serials aired by Hindi television channels. Correlation value provides the direction of relation and significance value of advertising effectiveness (dependent variable) and viewers’ demographic profile (independent variable) which explains the type of relationship listed at table -1.

Table-2 reveals the correlation between popular Hindi family drama viz: Diya Aur Baati Hum (Star Plus), Balika Vadhu (Colors), Ek Hazaaron Mein Meri Behna Hain (Star Plus), Yeh Rishta Kya Kehlata Hain (Star Plus), Saath Nibhana Saathiya (Star Plus), Punar Vivah (Zee TV), Pavitra Ristha (Zee TV), Sasural Simar Ka (Colors), Bade Achhe Lagte Hain (Sony), Uttaran (Colors) and effectiveness of advertising. Correlation test has been applied. Correlation value provides the direction of relation and significance value of advertising effectiveness (dependent variable) and popular serials (independent variable) which explain the nature and state of relationship.

Findings and Conclusion:

From this study it observed that both the advertising effectiveness and demographic profile of television viewers are closely related with each other. At the same time, the advertising effectiveness in the chosen Hindi family dramas (serials) is also seen. It found that the more popular programme have usually high degree of ad perception which reflect the cognitive recall of an ad.

Testing of Hypothesis:

H1: Advertising recall-ability of a viewer is associated the demographic behaviour of the television viewers.

The hypothesis is accepted and following findings are as follows:

  1. It observed that there is a negative relationship between age and advertising effectiveness. p value (0.01) is more than the level of significance 0.01, a significant relationship exists between two variables.
  2. It found that there is a negative relationship between marital status and advertising effectiveness. p value (0.001) is less when compared to the level of significance 0.01. A significant relationship exists between the two variables.
  3. It seen that there is a negative relationship between gender and advertising effectiveness. Value of p (0.001) is less when compared to level of significance 0.01. A significant relationship exists between the two variables.
  4. It found that there is a negative relationship between family income and advertising effectiveness. Value of p (0.003) is less than the level of significance 0.01. A significant relationship exists between the two variables.
  5. It seen that there is a negative relationship between occupation and advertising effectiveness. Value of p (0.447) is more than the level of significance 0.01. There is no significant relationship between the two variables.
  6. It observed that there is a negative relationship between educational qualification and advertising effectiveness. Value of p (0.162) is more than the level of significance 0.01. There is no significant relationship between the two variables.

It can be concluded that negative correlation exists between variables like demographic profile and advertising effectiveness on television. Change in independent variable impacts advertising effectiveness.

H2: Advertising effectiveness of various products in Hindi family television drama (serial) is closely associated with the recall-ability of a viewer and his/her purchase action.

The hypothesis is accepted and following findings are as follows:

  1. It found that there is a negative relationship between popular serial Diya Aur Baati Hum on Star Plus and advertising effectiveness. Value of p (0.000) is less than the level of significance 0.01. A significant relationship exists between the two variables.
  2. It indicates that there is a negative relationship between popular serial Balika Vadhu on Colors channel and advertising effectiveness. Value of p (0.000) is less than the level of significance 0.01. A significant relationship exists between the two variables.
  3. It indicates that there is a negative relationship between the serial Ek Hazaaron Mein Meri Behna Hain on Star Plus and advertising effectiveness. Value of p (0.000) is less than the level of significance 0.01. A significant relationship exists between the two variables.
  4. It observed that there is a negative relationship between the serial Yeh Rishta Kya Kehlata Hain on Star Plus and advertising effectiveness. Value of p (0.008) is less than the level of significance 0.01. A significant relationship exists between the two variables.
  5. It observed that there is a negative relationship between the serial Saath Nibhana Saathiya on Star Plus and advertising effectiveness. Value of p (0.000) is less than the level of significance 0.01. A significant relationship exists between the two variables.
  6. It seen that there is a negative relationship between the serial Punar Vivah on Zee TV and advertising effectiveness. Value of p (0.551) is more than the level of significance 0.01. No significant relationship exists between the two variables.
  7. It indicates that there is a positive relationship between the serial Pavitra Ristha on Zee TV and advertising effectiveness. Value of p (0.287) is more than the level of significance 0.01. No significant relationship exists between the two variables.
  8. It indicates that there is a negative relationship between the serial Sasural Simar Ka on Colors and advertising effectiveness. Value of p (0.004) is less than the level of significance 0.01. A significant relationship exists between the two variables.
  9. It indicates that there is a negative relationship between the serial Bade Achhe Lagte Hain on Sony TV and advertising effectiveness. Value of p (0.302) is more than the level of significance 0.01. No significant relationship exists between the two variables.
  10. It found that there is a negative relationship between the serial Uttaran on Colors and advertising effectiveness. Value of p (0.004) is less than the level of significance 0.01. A significant relationship exists between the two variables.

The findings revealed that the more popular the television programme has high value of attractiveness. Further, viewers watch the programme and able to recall the ad simultaneously which is positive for the media planner and advertisers.

Bibliography:

  1. Balasubramaniam, S. K (1994), “Beyond Advertising and Publicity: Hybrid Messages and Public Policy Issues”, Journal of Advertising, Vol. 23, No, 4, pp. 29-46.
  2. Chunawalla, S. A and Sethia, K. C (2008), Foundation of Advertising: Theory and Practice, Himalaya Publishing House, Mumbai, Seventh Edition, p.69.
  3. Debasish, S. S (2012), “Role of Television Advertising in Attitude Formation and Purchase Intention- A Study in Indian Telecom Sector”, Elixir Marketing Management, Vol. 51A, pp. 11073-11079.
  4. Eachambadi, N. V (1994), “Does Advertising Work?” The McKinsey Quarterly, Vol. 2, pp. 117-129.
  5. Kazmi, S. H. H and Batra, S. K (2007), Advertising and Sales Promotion, Second Edition, Excel Books, New Delhi, p. 146.
  6. Khanam, D, Mohammad, M. S and Tareq, M. A (2014), “Broadcasting Indian TV Serials in Bangladesh: The Beginning of the Social Change- A Study on Present Situation of Bangladesh”, IOSR Journal of Humanities and Social Science, Vol. 19, No. 7, pp. 142-150,July.
  7. Mankekar, P (1993), “National Texts and Gendered Lives: Ethnography of Television Viewers in a North Indian City," American Ethnologist, Vol. 20, pp. 543-563.
  8. Mathew, A.P and Aswathy, S (2014), “Influence of Television Advertising on Purchase Decision Making of FMCG: A Study on Hindustan Unilever Limited”, International Journal of Commerce, Business and Management, Vol. 3, No. 5, pp. 744-747, October.
  9. O’Donohoe, S (1995), “Attitudes to Advertising: A Review of British and American Research”, International Journal of Advertising, Vol.14, No.3, pp. 45-61.
  10. Rai, G (2008), “The Changing Face of Media in the World of Advertisement”, Advertising Express, pp. 47-51, January.
  11. Ramalingam, V, Palaniappan, B, Panchnatham, N, and Palanivel, S (2006) “Measuring Advertising Effectiveness: A Neural Network Approach, Journal of Business Research, No.31, pp. 159-160.
  12. Saiganesh, S and Parameswaran, R (2012), “Avoidance Behaviour of Audience towards Television Advertisements”, IRJC-Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Management Review, Vol. 1, No. 2, pp. 92-99, October 2012.

Source: SPSS Output

[Numbers indicates in the table denoted as A-Advertising Effectiveness in TV and selected hindi serials, 1-Diya Aur Baati Hum (Star Plus), 2-Balika Vadhu (Colors),3-Ek Hazaaron Mein Meri Behna Hain (Star Plus), 4-Yeh Rishta Kya Kehlata Hain (Star Plus), 5-Saath Nibhana Saathiya  (Star Plus), 6-Punar Vivah (Zee TV), 7-Pavitra Ristha (Zee TV), 8-Sasural Simar Ka (Colors), 9-Bade Achhe Lagte Hain (Sony), 10-Uttaran (Colors)


 
 

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