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Editorial Board A Refereed Monthly International Journal of Management
Prof. B. P. Sharma
(Editor in Chief)
Prof. Mahima Birla
(Group Editor)
Dr. Khushbu Agarwal
(Editor)
Ms. Asha Galundia
(Circulation Manager)

 Editorial Team

Dr. Devendra Shrimali
Dr. Dharmesh Motwani
Mr. Jinendra Vyas
 

Changing Ethical Values in Hindu Family- Evidence from Doha’s and Chaupai’s of the Indian Scholars

Shraddha Mishra1, Pooja Tripathi2, Pratibha Maurya3 and Shital Sharma4

Abstract

Epics and scriptures likes Vedas and Upanishads are the groundwork for any Hindu Family. Since the birth, the Ramayana and Bhagwat Gita are the integral part of any Hindu Child. In this study we made an attempt to study the changing ethics’ and values of Indian Family with reference to existing Doha’s and Chaupai’s presented by famous Indian scholars such as Kabirdas, Rahimdas, Tulsidas and Raidas. The study presents the changing paradigm of Doha’s and Chaupai’s in the 21st century. We have considered the sixteen different Doha’s and Chaupai’s regarding vim and vigor by the four pioneer Indian scholar and made an effort to discuss its relevance in the real world. In context towards India, the study claims that the thoughts of the ancient Indian scholars are perfectly matched with the existing Indian culture.

 

This research article is written for safe-guarding the intangible cultural heritage of Indian Society. Study reveals that the thoughts of Kabirdas are much relevant and motivational in the real world as compared to new management gurus. However, the Rahimdas’s thoughts on social behavior and ethical values are still prevailing with the Tulsidas’s special visualization on Lord Rama. The scholar Tulsidas was efficient enough in that Vedic age to describe the existing political and sociological aspects of the Indian families. The intellectual scholar, Raidas’s vision was proficient enough to bring the communal harmony in India. Raidas was the only famous scholar of that age who focused on the present problem of caste and creed.

In 21st century, the ethical values of Indian’s are dragging themselves towards the westernization. However the annals of Indian Society and culture are still lies in the Doha’s and Chaupai’s of Indian Scholars. It is suggested to the Indian Education system to make it mandatory in the basic education to provide strength in the basic structure and ethical values of Indians.

  • Shraddha Mishra, Assistant Professor, Department of Rural Management, Baba Saheb BhimRao Ambedkar University, Lucknow.
  • Pooja Tripathi, Junior Research Fellow, Faculty of Social Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi.
  • Pratibha Maurya, Senior Research Fellow, Faculty of Commerce, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi.
  • Shital Sharma, Research Fellow, Faculty of Social Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi.

Doha’s means a rhyming couplet. These are two liner poems. However, the Chaupai’s are called as quatrain in English. These are the hymns of four lines. The origin of these in Hindi tended to use common, simple, and slang words, rather than the high minded Sanskrit words. The motive of this is to reach the ordinary person on the streets, in India.

Many of words used in Doha’s are not in much use today in modern Hindi language, which makes understanding it more difficult. Re-phrasing the original words of the Indian scholars will be unjustifiable. There is choice of words, and the sounds convey the power of Indian poetic legends. It is suggested to learn the meaning and denotation of doha’s and chaupai’s in Hindi. In the same manner you would require to be trained in English to understand Shakespeare.

In our view, it is better to learn Doha’s and Chaupai’s in Hindi, and collect its additional meaning from the exploit of the original words, otherwise the meaning that ancient Indian scholar’s wanted to convey will be lost. Hindi is considered as the ideal language for Poetry, but those expressions don't exist in the English culture and not much common. Different experiences exist in western countries.

A true poetic translation of Dohas and Chaupais into English that maintains the meaning, meter, tone, rhyme and also maintains the vocal power of the words with and psychological influence is not possible. One would need to be a true genius like Shakespeare to do that. Poets like Rabindranath Tagore have tried to conevert it into English, but the end result is a way short of the original.

Tagore's literature, “One Hundred Poems of Kabir”, does not even convey the simple meaning of the original work. He is not able to subtler the mind and its spiritual meaning. The English used by him is lofty and high, which conveys insignificant to the average reader. Hence, the reader would not be much impressed through it. Tagore's language is not the simple, down to earth language used by the ordinary, generally poor person as Kabir's use of Hindi was. This is because Tagore's never lived in the slums, also even Tagore, who is a mystical genius, did not have the spiritual awareness to understand Kabir’s words fully.

In the chapter we have to study the changing ethics’ and values of Indian Family with reference to existing Doha’s and Chaupai’s presented by famous Indian scholars such as Kabirdas, Rahimdas, Tulsidas and Raidas. The study presents the changing paradigm of Doha’s and Chaupai’s in the 21st century. We have considered the sixteen different Doha’s and Chaupai’s regarding vim and vigor by the four pioneer Indian scholar and made an effort to discuss its relevance in the real world. In context towards India, the study claims that the thoughts of the ancient Indian scholars are perfectly matched with the existing Indian culture.

  1. Ecstatic Doha’s by Kabirdas

Kabirdas’s influence on the development of the modern Hindi or Urdu language was the same as Shakespeare's influence on the English language. About six hundred years ago, a great master is pioneer of Bhakti Movement in India. The word Kabir means ‘great’ in Arabic Language. For Hindus, Kabir was a Vaisnava bhakta; while Muslims considered him a pir and to Sikhs called him a bhagat. He was born in India in 1398 AD and lived for 120 years. Further he relinquished his body in 1518 at Maghar near Gorakhpur.

The mystery of his birth is still prevailing. Few call him a Brahmin widow’s son, who abandoned him. The couple named as Niru and Nima has adopted Kabir and taught him the art of weaving. A common weaver becomes the master of weaving the words in his poetries, commonly known as Doha’s. Kabirdas tried very hard to bring communal harmony in the clashing religious cultures of Hinduism and Islamism together. in Varanasi, the religious authorities offered him the hatred and persecution. Hence in the late years of his life, he led a life of exile. At the age of 60, he started travelling through entire northern India along with a group of disciples.

Kabir longed for spiritual training and was taught by Ramanand swami who became his guru. He wasn’t a sadhu or reununciate but a common man and is said to have had a wife and children. He lived the balanced life of a householder mystic, a weaver tradesman and a contemplative. His Guru (mentor) was Ramanand swami, he longed his spiritual training from him.

The exquisiteness of Kabir's poetry is in its minimalism and unfussiness. The two lines poetry or Doha which decides on up situations that encase our daily lives. Thus, even in 21st century, Kabir's dohas are pertinent and helpful in steering and regulating our lives, in social, communal and spiritual context. His poem/verse teach humility and are devotional in nature.

Doha 1:

Pothi Padh Padh Kar Jag Mua, Pandit Bhayo Na Koye
Dhai Aakhar Prem Ke, Jo Padhe so Pandit Hoye

Translation:

Reading Books and Scriptures everyone died, No one became Pandit
Two and Half Words of Love, Who so ever reads, Pandit he becomes

Meaning: The World has died in studying books but the real acquaintance comes from the emotions and sentiments come from the heart. Kabir says that forget about book learning, no matter how many books you read, you won't become wise, you won't became the true knowledgeable and well-versed (Pandit). Just a few words of love and affection will become Pandit.

Relevance in Modern World: In 1935, Albert Einstein and two colleagues, Boris Podolsky and Nathan Rosen developed a thought experiment to demonstrate what they felt was a lack of completeness in quantum mechanics as proposed by Bohr and Quantum Mechanics. This is known as the EPR paradox. Einstein, being a realist, subscribed to the theory of an independent, objective world. He could not accept the proposition of Bohr’s quantum theory that the particle (therefore the world) only existed because of the observer.

Eventually an experiment was done by the Alain Aspect based on the groundwork developed by David Bohm and one of his enthusiastic supporters John Bell in 1982. This experiment proved that Einstein was wrong, and the quantum theorists were correct. It has been repeated several times, with the same results. It proved that at the nuts and bolts atomic level the world is not as we understand it. The experts like Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen were well-qualified still then they were failed to prove there theorems due to tough specifications. Conversely, the names of Shakespeare and Vivekananda are still in limelight owed to their literally work in artist way.

In other words the world as we understand it is an illusion, the reality is totally different and cannot be explained by the rules of Physics/mechanics and neither is it subject to them.

Eventually, if you will take the help of the loving words and the affectionate thoughts then this may help others to comprehend one’s views. As a mother taught to the child in the caring and loving words then it is easy to learn for a kid.

Doha 2:

Maya Mari Na Mun Mara, Mar Mar Gaye Shareer
Asha Trishna Na Mari, Keh Gaye Das Kabir

Translation

Neither Maya Died, Nor the Mind Died, Die and die again People/Bodies
Hope and delusion have not died, so said Das Kabir and left

Meaning: One of Kabir most meaningful doha's for author’s. Kabir observes the world from within, and sees the world as Maya - illusion. It is projected by Mun, the mind, the collective mind. Shareer refers to the living body or living person. Shareer's die and die again.

There is hope that this will end, that there will be the emergence of a new body (Shareer) that will wake up, and then Maya and Mun will instead die.

Relevance in Modern World: Milarepa, The Great Tibetan Sage, summed it all up beautifully in his poem I Fear Not. In it he cleverly uses our basic desires (for a house, food, wealth, companions and that ever elusive thing, happiness) that the mind promises will come ‘tomorrow, tomorrow, tomorrow‘; or one day, when this and that happens, but never delivers.

This way the listener can hear and understand with his mind, but realize deep inside that what he really wants will only come from the void, the emptiness. God comes when he takes back his awareness from the control of his mind. The void is inside you. The void exists where there is no moving mind. Stop your mind now, drop your attachments to the thoughts that come to you, and you will reach it. The more time you spend in a state of no mind, the more will the God shine through you; think of it as building your house, brick by brick.

When you have built your house in the void, you can stroll outside it whenever you like, and go back to it when you’re done. In other words, you can switch off your mind and experience the alertness, the pure awareness that you are in the present moment, the timeless now; and you can switch it on when there is a task that needs to be done in the clock-time, light-filled, world with objects – sounds, smells, separate things, and I (Ego).

Kabir specified God as Water. Our bodies are mostly water, yet we rarely think about water; it’s as if we don’t see it. 99% of the molecules in our body are water molecules. We’ll talk about the bones, muscles, proteins, carbohydrates, fats, vitamins, enzymes, minerals and other nutrients – yet all these compose only a tiny fraction of our body. Water is around 75% of our body – we are effectively walking blobs of water! A 5% drop in body fluids will cause a 25 to 30% loss of energy in most people; a 15% drop will cause death.

The God is also like that; we miss it completely and focus on objects, on illusions; we focus so much on noise that we miss the silence. We miss the real because we are so focused on the shadow.  Hence, we may summarize that if we will create each asset in voidances then we will never be frustrated by its loss and will become happy ever after in future.

In 21st century we may take example of a family, those families are found to be happier whose centric is not maya (money). As maya involves in the relation of father and son or husband and wife then it seems very difficult to run the cart of life, which was pulled by them together from many days. We may also summarize that if we will leave financial decisions on others this may reduce the family conflicts to a larger extent.

Doha 3:

Keson Kaha Bigadia, Je Moonde Sau Baar
Man Ko Kahe Na Moondiye, Jaamein Vishey Vikaar

Translation
What harm have the hair done, you shave them hundred times 
Why not shave the mind, there grow unchecked countless poisonous thoughts   

Meaning: There is a tradition of monks having their hair shaved. They do this again and again. Kabir asks: what has the hair done that you cut it hundreds of times? Why don't you cut the mind, where are born the Vishey Vikaar?

Vishey means nasty, poisonous things. Vikars are: serious faults or major weaknesses that we have. Serious vikars include:

Kama - Lust
Krodh - Rage or uncontrolled anger
Lobh - Greed
Moh - Attachment or emotional attachment
Ahankar – Ego

We need to cut these vikars, that is purify or clean the Mind.

Relevance in Modern World: Mind and body is an integrated thing – you can’t fully cleanse your body if your mind holds fears, worries, stress, hatred, jealousy, ego, greed, and so forth. Similarly, you will not have peace of mind and true happiness if your body is being poisoned.

The ancient priests, Buddha, Sufis and others were practitioners of Meditation. Meditation, “Mind Detox”, is about removing the compulsive thoughts, fears, hates, worries and other attachments from our minds; just as body detox is removing the toxins and accumulated crap from our bodies. The process involves realizing that the real culprit behind ones problems is one’s own mind.

After realizing this fact, you can then take specific steps to fix the root cause of all your problems by cleaning your own mind. If it is your mind, then can you switch it off, put it away for a while?

It is crucial to realize that thoughts just come and go. You may disagree, you may believe that you are creating the thoughts that you are thinking by using your mind. But if you carefully observe your thoughts, you may discover that this is not the case.

If you are creating your thoughts, then why don’t you stop creating your thoughts? If you are creating your thoughts, then why don’t you create different, more brilliant thoughts,  that would make you a billionaire like Bill Gates or Steve Jobs?

Thoughts just come and go. They just come and go, like waves or ripples on the sea. They have nothing to do with you, unless you ‘think’ that they do, unless you say that’s my thought, that is me, I think this and I think that. By this process of identification you start to give the thought that just come and go more substance, solidity where none exists and start defending that thought with more thoughts.

This me, me, me is how the Ego is built over the years. The ego gets bigger, gets inflated with more thoughts about me and mine. Just drop it. Drop the Ego and be happy.

To relax, change to a simple life style – stop eating, drink water, have a sauna, have a massage. Let the mind and body relax.

Drinking pure ionized water, fasting on pure water, infrared saunas and therapeutic massages are the best ways to relax, calm the mind and for making a shift towards an awareness of Being.

A portable infrared sauna is great thing to have at home. It is not necessary, but it does help the process by deeply relaxing the body, and if you have regular saunas, it gets the mind into the routine or habit of relaxing, letting go.

Regular massages are also great ways to relax and be free of the mind, particularly non-clinical massages where the focus is on the sensual aspects of touch, the breath and the energetic levels of ones being. There is a connection between conscious relaxation, breath and Being. Think of relaxation and breathe as the royal road to Being.

Think of the mind as a non-being, a computer, a robot that cannot feel passion, cannot feel pleasure, cannot truly enjoy being alive. The mind cannot love or experience love. But you can. That is, Being can.

The beautiful lotus flower is often found floating on muddy, dirty ponds; yet it maintains its beauty and purity, untainted by the pollution around it. The unique journey of the lotus seeds from darkness to perfection symbolises our spiritual journey.

The lotus seeds in the bottom of muddy, dirty ponds, totally surrounded by darkness, with not a glimmer of light. Unlike other seeds, it gently moves up, away from the ground. It is as if an inner knowledge, an inner light that cannot be seen, is guiding it, telling it to drop everything it knows, drop its fears and travel up. Eventually it reaches the surface and the light, where it flowers to its true potential, beauty and perfection.

As it starts to open and unfold to its true, inherent beauty and destiny, the lotus flower improves the water around it. The water in the entire dark pond becomes clearer, transparent and allows light and life to flow into the pond.

The lotus flower is the perfect symbol for mind-body detox, as it has been a symbol of the Chinese culture, Buddhism, and the path of Enlightenment.

The path involves self-examination, self-development, self-purification and eventual self-mastery.

Are we not like the lotus seed; surrounded by darkness, ignorance and pollution, though it may seem as if we are living in advanced, enlightened times? As Gandhi said “Be the change you want to see in the world“, because as you change the world will start to change.

Doha 4:

Kabir Soyee Soorma, Man Soon Maande Jhoojh
Panch Pyada Paari Le, Door Kare Sab Dooj

Translation:


Kabir, He alone is the Warrior , who takes on the mind head-on
Crushing the sensual five, all duality gone

Meaning: The real fighter, the real warrior is the one who takes on his own mind. The Mind controls the 'sensual five', the five senses of sight, sound, touch, smell and taste. These five senses and the mind that interprets the vibrations that the senses deliver to the brain, they all tell us lies. The mind and the five senses tell us that duality exists, though in truth it does not. Like a dream, everything around us does not exist - only God exists, everything else is part of duality.

Relevance in Modern World: This section explores why Water is considered a symbol or a pointer to the Spirit or God. Like emptiness, water goes by largely unnoticed, but without water, life would not exist. Just as life, would not exist without the God. Just as we cannot see the emptiness, we cannot see the God, but could water point us to towards God? It explains the nature of life and existence; the nature of the Infinite; the opposing forces of good and evil, positive and negative and much more.

The degree of softness in our body is related to the water content. A baby in the womb is 95% water; the dead are some 50% water. An absence of water is dryness, the way of death. When he is born, man is soft and weak; in death, he becomes stiff and hard. The ten thousand creatures and all plants and trees are supple and soft in life, but brittle and dry in death. Truly, to be stiff and hard is the way of death; to be soft and supple is the way of life.

Hardness comes from the mind, and the emotions generated by the mind. From this you get the dogmas, and the belief systems that we are plagued with; the need to be right; the ego; the arguments; the labels for other rigid opinions that your mind doesn’t agree with; the hatred, the violence; and all the rest of the problems that humanity is burdened with water content in body.

Softness comes from the absence of the mind, from the inner perception. It comes when you make an energetic connection to the God, the life force that animates all things. It is being connected to the inner femininity, the soft, yielding inner self behind the hard exterior. In the Bruce Lee film Enter the Dragon, Lee in a Shaolin monastery explains to his student about a finger pointing to something. The student looks at the finger.

Lee slaps him and says: ‘Don’t look at the finger, look at what it is pointing to’.

This concept gets misunderstood, because the finger points to something external, the sun, a tree, an opponent or whatever. The God is not like that, because the God is not out there, it is not where a finger can point to. The God is like the truth and the truth is NOT out there.

Again, as a finger, what does water point to? It points to something internal. Not internal as in our physical body, because the body, the brain, the cells, the atoms are composed of objects, sub-atomic particles, which as we will explore, do not exist.

Yet, as the hermit Milarepa said: “the bodily substance is the palace of divinity“

Divinity is within the illusory body that water points to. This divinity animates the body and gives life to it. Divinity also exists within all things, for all things are alive; if you could see a stone from the energetic perspective you’d see it as vibrant, pulsing with life. You can feel it as your energetic presence. It is the one universal life force that animates all things. If you merge your awareness with it, becomes one with it, you will become aware of the one life that animates all things. As a symbol, water points to the divinity that animates the illusory body. It points to the consciousness or awareness that is the ‘mother of all things under heaven’.

  1. Rhapsodic Doha’s by Saint Ravidas:

Saint Ravidas was born about 1450 and died about 1520. According to some Scholars he was born in 1399 CE and lived 120years. Ravidas also known as “Raidas”.  Ravidas was born in a village named seer Goverdhanpur, near Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, India. Kalsa was his mother, and his father was Santokh Das. He was a great versifier saint in 15th centuary. Raidas was a contemporary saint of Kabirdas and Ramanand was guru of both saints. Ravidas was very liberal and devotional saint of medieval period. He belongs to the family of leather work that called Chamar. According to Hinduism this family comes into the Shudra category. The spiritual and devotional song wrote by him had long-lasting impact upon the Bhakti movement. He is considered as the originator of 21st century Ravidassia religion. He was previously related with sikhism. The spiritual songs of Raidas has included in Guru granth sahib, a sikh scripture. Ravidas was a first scholar that coined the issues like Caste and creed. Traditionally the shudra families come into the fourth position which is the last level of Varna system. Besides of these things he always gave the importance to purity of soul. He always worked for the separate identity and respect of dalits. The most famous lines of raidas is “MANN CHANGA TO KATHAUTI ME GANGA”.

 

Dohas 1:

Jab hum hote tab tu nahi, ab tu hai mai nahi.

Alag alag jaise lahri me udadhi, jal keval jal mahi.

Translation:

When I am in ego then you are not with me

Now that you are with me there is no egotism within me.

The wind may raise huge waves in the vast ocean but they are just water in water.

Meaning:  In this Doha, Bhakt Ravidas want to state that whenever you will not give up the feeling of arrogance, you could not find the blessing of God. When you will make a distance from your egoistic personality at that time you will easily find to God in your Body and soul.

Relevance in Modern World: We are living with most of facilities that affect us directly or indirectly. In the context of family we find that even in this modern time, people easily come into the effect of superstitions. This superstitious behavior makes people totally conservative and makes them irrational. Some time it seems that these kinds of people do not want to see the things rationally and easily tend towards such type of doing. It can be understand by the example of superstition like if, someone is going for interview or any other important work and on the mid way a black cat cross the road, then superstitious person will get confused, he will consider it as bad sign of god and not good time to start new work. But In this modern time we should totally sacrifice such type of thoughts. These conservative thoughts are only hurdle to achieve our Goal. If we will try to understand causal effect relationship of things then there will be no place in our mind for such type of bullshit talks.

In the same way if we start looking through the glass of Indian Hindu culture then it is supposed that one male could be the head of the family. It is the common saying in the Indian society that “Pati devta saman hota hai”. This signifies that a husband is equivalent to god. With this supposition many of the Indian females are suffering from domestic violence and the worst side of the dowry system. The total cases of dowry and domestic violence is rising day by day. The Indian females are still in the misconception of the God in the form of there husband. However in the modern world these cupids have been converted into devil. If Raidas would be here in the 21st century then he must be writing about the incoherent culture that is pervading in the human minds regarding the relations of the modern Indian society.

Doha 2:

 Jati bhi  ochhi, pati bhi ochhi, ochha janam humara

Niche se prabhu uncha, kiyo hai kahe Raidas chamara.

Translation:

Caste is low, stratum is low, and birth is also low,

Raidas is saying god uplifted me from beneath.

Meaning: Saint Raidas says that I born in lowest caste and my stratum is also low class but I feel satisfy because you are always with me. The logical aspect of this doha’s is that Don't feel sad if you are born in a lower caste. Wake-up to your relation with the God and enhance your skills it will raise to you at the higher level.

Relevance in Modern World: In this transitional era, we see that there are various classes exist in the society. i.e. Upper, middle and lower. Generally we see two type of group in the society, rich and poor. If we see at a glance on our surrounding then we get that some families live their life in very luxurious way. On the other hand some families are not able to fulfil even their basic needs.

Health centre of University of Hyderabad has registered a Dalit suicide case in January 2016. Rohit Vermula has done suicide due to the low attention he received because of his caste. Since the time of Ravidas the virus of caste is prevailing in India and still it’s destructing the entire nation. Free India is still in urgent need of freedom from the caste and creed system.

The ‘New Oxfam Report 2015’ shows that the 62 richest billionaires own as much wealth as the poorer half of the world population. May be it is the bad aspect of our society but if we seriously think about that people who are poor, they are living their life with satisfaction. In their life, no cut throat competition exists and people not worried about materialistic things. They easily admit the Power of god and they have more capacity for taking risk in their life. In this Materialistic society everyone wants to get more facility and live life with all comfort. This Doha of Saint Raidas wants to give a clear message to believe yourself and improve your positive habits. With the help of consistency and hard labor you can be a great personality also.

Doha 3:

Tohi mohi Mohi tohi antar kaisa,

Kanak katik jal tarang jaisa.

Translation:

You are me and I am you, what is the difference between us?

We are like gold and bracelet are water and the waves.

Meaning: Saint Ravidas says that God is everywhere even, he live in each cell of our body. A man cannot imagine himself without god’s present. Relation of human being and God is just like Body and soul.

Relevance in Modern World: These lines represent the role of male and female in our society. Both are know the importance of one-another but sometimes situation become worse and they blame one another. We all know that male have some qualities of female and female have some qualities of male. Both are play a prominent role in existing social structure. In Hindu scripture it is written that neither male nor female can complete their ritual activity without one another. At that time women were also playing equal role in the formation of society. Both are complimentary element in the scene of family. We can take an example of marriage institution. When a man does the marriage with a woman and become husband-wife at that time there is no separation between them. Example of Dhiru bhai ambani in relation to her wife support

Doha 4:

Prabhuji ! Tum Chandan, Hum Pani | 
 Jaaki Ang Ang Baas Samaani || 
Prabhuji ! Tum Ghan, Ban Hum Mora | 
Jaise Chitwat Chand Chakora || 
Prabhuji ! Tum Deepak Hum Baati, 
Jaaki Jyoti Barai Dini Raati || 
Prabhuji ! Tum Moti, Hum Dhaga | 
Jaise Sonhe Milat Suhaga || 
Prabhuji ! Tum Swami, Hum Dasa | 
Aisi Bhakti Karai Raidasa ||
 
Translation: O Lord, we are the water. You are the sandalwood that perfumes the water and is present equally everywhere in the water. O Lord, we are forest. You are the cloud. As a Chakora Bird is thirsty for a raindrop directly falling into its mouth from the cloud, so we are for you. O Lord, You are the light (deepak) and we are the thread (baati) that burns to sustain the ever glowing flame. O Lord, we are the thread and you are the beautiful pearls of the mala. O Lord, You are the master. We are your servants. Let this be the way of my devotion forever. 

Meaning: In these lines Raidas says that God is great creator. When we are needed God always help. Saint Raidas explain that there are countless bad habits inbuilt in our personality but because of God’s mercy we are living this life in very enthusiastic way. We want to always live with the care of god. God always make our path lighted.
Relevance in Modern World: In this technological time, importance of true guru more increases. A true Guru (Satguru) is just like god. He prevents us from deviating from our goals and makes us aware of all right and wrong thing present in this world. We cannot deny from the fact that Guru plays a prominent role in this world. We can also see the importance of guru in these lines that said by Kabirdas.   -

Guru Kumhar Sikh Kumbh Hai, Gadh Gadh Kadhe Khot
Antar Hath Sahar De, Bahar Bahe

The example of Edison and Eklawya in Mahabharata are few exemplars of the ancient and modern world.

  1. Triumphal Doha’s by Goswami Tulsidas

Tulsidas a Hindu poet-saint, reformer and philosopher renowned for his devotion to the god Rama was born at Rajapur (also known as the Chitrakuta) at the banks of the Yamuna river in UP. Tulsidas was acclaimed in his lifetime to be a reincarnation of Valmiki, the composer of the original Ramayana in Sanskrit.  He started his first learning at the Ayodhya and his Upanayana was performed by the Narharidas at Ayodhya when he was just of 7 years old. He came to the sacred city Varanasi when he was just 15–16 years old and got the knowledge of Sanskrit grammar, Hindu literature and philosophy, four Vedas, six Vedangas, Jyotisha from his guru Shesha Sanatana at the Panchaganga Ghat in Varanasi.

Tulsidas wrote twelve books. The most famous book is his Ramayan—Ram-charit-manas—in Hindi. He started writing Ramcharitmanas in Ayodhya and completed his writing in two years, seven months and twenty six days. He came to the Varanasi and delivered the epic Ramcharitmanas to the Lord Shiva and Mata Parvati at the Kashi Vishwanath Temple. Tulsidas was acclaimed in his lifetime to be a reincarnation of Valmiki, the composer of the original Ramayana in Sanskrit. It consists of seven books or chapter namely Bal Kand, Ayodhya Kand, Aranya Kand, Kiskindha Kand, Sundar Kand, Lanka Kand and Uttar Kand. The Indologist and linguist Sir George Grierson called Tulsidas "the greatest leader of the people after the Buddha" and "the greatest of Indian authors of modern times" and contemporary Akbar, called Tulsidas the greatest man of his age in India and greater than even Akbar himself. Tulsidas spent most of his life in the city of Varanasi and the Tulsi Ghat on the Ganges River in Varanasi is named after him. He died on the river bank of Gange at the Assi Ghat at the age of 91 in the month of Shraavan (July or August) in 1623.

Doha 1:

“Kaam Krodh Madh Lobh Ki, Jo Lou Mann Me Khan
Tou Lou Pandit Murkho, Tulsi Ek Saman”

Translation:

Lust, anger, ego and greed, if adopted by someone

There is no difference between scholar and brainless or duffer.

Meaning: The medieval poet and philosopher advocated that a person with all knowledge and qualification is fool if he is surrounded by four moral evils Kaam (lust and illegitimate sex), Krodh(anger and needs to be controlled),  Madh (ego or proud), Lobh (greed, a strong desire to possess what rightfully belongs to others).

Relevance in Modern World:

The inner battle- fought by abandoning four unethical evils Kaam, krodh, madh and lobh. Kaam (lust and illegitimate sex) is considered as a crime by Indian government and government is regularly amending the rules to protect the sexual and mental assault of not only females but form men also.

Krodh (Anger) lasts for a short while but leaves its impact for lifetime. Uncontrolled anger increases anxiety, high blood pressure, headache etc. A research conducted by University of Sydney in Australia reveals the fact that anger outbursts could raise the risk of heart attack, stroke and other cardiovascular events. In modern times, the concept of scheming anger has transformed into anger management programs conducted by research of psychologists. Success in treating anxiety with Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and some popular anger management techniques include monitored breathing exercises, relaxation techniques, imagery problem solving, cognitive restructuring, interpersonal skills development and improving communication strategies.

 Kings of Magadh Dynasty succeeded by killing their fathers to rule and capture whole empire proves the chronic imbalances in their social values. King Brihdratha was killed by his son Bibisar who was killed by his son Ajatashatru. Ajatashatru was killed by Udayin.

 In modern civilized era, for passing time youngsters spend their time at bars and casinos knowing the fact that it can destroy their future but still these places are at hit list.

Doha 2:

“Daya Dharm Ka Mool Hai, Paap Mool Abhiman

Tulsi Daya Na Choriye, Jab Lag Ghat Me Praan”

Translation:

“Compassion is the basis of Religion, sin is root of arrogance

 Don’t give up the quality of Mercy, until you die.”

Meaning: Goswami Tulsidas Ji stated that kindness is the foundation of all the religion and sin is the root for destruction. Religions may be different but teaches same values; kindness, goodwill, devotion to God can never suffer or fall in disrepute. With ups and downs at different stages of life a man should keep faith on himself and don’t give up the quality of mercy for his entire life.

Relevance in Modern World:

The world today stands on the mouth of seething volcano. In modern world mercy by a person is confined to their relatives and loved ones and sometimes this emotion of mercy tragically disappears for the relatives and loved ones.

14th Dalai Lama of Tibet approached to maintain world Peace “ I maintain that every religion of the world - Buddhism, Christianity, Confucianism, Hinduism, Islam, Jainism, Judaism, Sikhism, Taoism, Zoroastrianism - has similar ideals of love, the same goal of benefiting humanity through spiritual practice, and the same effect of making their followers into better human beings. All religions teach moral precepts for perfecting the functions of mind, body, and speech. All teach us not to lie or steal or take others' lives, and so on. The common goal of all moral precepts laid down by the great teachers of humanity is unselfishness. The great teachers wanted to lead their followers away from the paths of negative deeds caused by ignorance and to introduce them to paths of goodness.”

Shakespeare presented mercy as a quality most valuable to the most powerful, strongest and highest in society; The quality of mercy is not strained” "Strained" is a Shakesperean-era term for "forced or constrained"; it means mercy must be freely given. You can grasp this by seeing the quote in context: “The quality of mercy is not strained, it dropped as the gentle rain from heaven.”

Examples of Indian personalities popularly known for mercy are Mother Teresa, Ishverchandra Vidyasagar, Madanmohan Malaviya.

 

Doha 3:

“Bina tej ke purush ki avshi avagya hoy
Aagi bujhe jyo raakh ki aap chuvay sab koy”

Translation:

Person without enlightenment, get disrespected in society. Like, if fire put-off, everyone can easily touch the ashes (without fear, hesitations).

Meaning:  Acquisition of knowledge gives respect in society. Enlightenment means a philosophical movement that emphasizes the reason to use and scrutinize previously established doctrines, ethnicity and brought many humanitarian reforms.

 

Relevance in Modern World: In modern-era, whole world is mad at gaining knowledge but a eminent personality who uses his knowledge in logical way at right time enlighten the society, gains respect in the society. India gave great personalities to the world, personalities who made difference in the field of Politics, Sports, Dance, Science, Religion, Industry, Cinema etc. from Gautam Buddh to Mahatma Gandhi, from Chacha Nehru to Mrs. Indira Gandi, from Dr. Rajendra Prashad to Mr. APJ Abdul Kalam Ajad, from Milkha Singh to Mukesh Ambani.

Doha 4:

"Tulsi meethe bachan te sukh upjaat chahu or
Basikaran ek mantra hain pariharu bachan kathor"

Translation:

Sweet speech creates happiness all around.

If you want to win over the hearts of others then don't speak harsh words.

Meaning:   Communication is most certainly one of the strongest tools at disposal and being soft spoken can work extremely well for your advantage. Novelist Kevin Allen Thompson said that use hard words it is full of potential and symbolize the healthy culture world but never use harsh word; it denotes destruction, negativity and unhealthy culture.

Relevance in Modern World: Sweet tongue grows pleasure everywhere. Communication can, with the passage of time, make or break any relationship; personal, social or business. Newberg and Waldman in year 2012 discussed that words can change your brain and explained how negative words, heard even just for a fleeting movement persist for long time. Human emotions are prompted by love and pain received from others in society. Soft communication skill commonly alleviates building of healthy relationship. Now-days in business, effective communication by managers helps in facilitating information sharing between company employees, motivates them and helps in contributing commercial success. In most of the business schools there is a separate subject which helps in improving the communication skills.  Business managers, owners and entrepreneurs also understood the pivotal role of communication for employee motivation, as it can sometimes be the most basic communication slip-up that leads to dissatisfaction among employees. Facilitating effective communication can help in improving employees’ performance.

  1. Blissful Doha’s by Rahimdas

Bhakti kal in Hindi literature was also the age of noticeable assimilation between the Hindu and Islamic elements in Arts. This integration had been possible primarily with the arrival of umpteen Muslim Bhakti poets like Rahim. In bhakti kaal Rahim was another great poet and possessor of immense knowledge as kabir. Famous poet Rahim was son of Bairam khan and Sultana began also known as Khanzada Mirza Khan Abdul Rahim Khan-e-Khana born in 17 Dec 1556 and thaw out in panchtatwa in 1627. Bairam khan father of rahim was escort of mugal emperor. He lived during the rule of Muhgal king Akbar and was eminent versifier of mugal emperor. He was one of the nine important ministers (dewan) in akbar’s state, also honoured as Akbar’s Navaratnas. Akbar gave him the title of “Mirza Khan”. Rahim is best known for his Hindi couplets and his books on astrological science. The village of Khankhana, which is named after him, is situated in the Nawanshahr district of the modern state of Punjab, India.

He became popular in the medieval feudal culture. He has versatile personality and played many role in his life cycle such as a commander, administrator, patron, munificent, diplomat, poet and scholar. Apart from writing various couplets, Rahim also made his valuable contribution by translating Babar's memoirs, Baburnama from Chagatai language to Persian language, which was completed in 998 (1589–90) AD. Though Rahim born in muslim family but he had extreme affection for Krishna and wrote poetry to dedicate him. He was famous for his charity to the poor. Tulsidas wrote a doha when heard about rahim’s alms behaviour.

ऐसी देनी देंन ज्यूँ, कित हो सैन

ज्यों ज्यों कर ऊच्यो करो, त्यों त्यों निचे नैन

"Why give alms like this? Where did you learn that?

 Your hands are as high as your eyes are low"

He holds an excellent command over Sanskrit and also wrote two books on astrology, Kheta Kautukama and Dwawishd Yogavali. Rahim revealed deep secrets of life by verses writing. His cantos have their own place in 21 century which cannot be neglected because certain facts are those truths that remain relevant always. Rahims dohas are those eternal truths which will never change and always play a prominent role in the development of society. 

Doha 1:

Rahiman Dhaga Prem Ka, Mat Todo Chatkay |

Tute Se Phir Naa Mile, Mile Gaanth Pad Jaaye ||

 

Translation:

Says Rahim do not snap ever, the thread of love,

Once broken, it does not unite, if it does, knots appear

 

Meaning: Rahim related relations with thread. He said that don’t break or snap thread of love with your loved one. If it breaks once, it cannot be mended. Even we try to mend it there a knot will be appear, which means there will always be some awkwardness.

Relevance in Modern World: It is very clear from the aforementioned poetry that confidence and love that build during decades are not meant to be broken. Because once it is broken, it will not be unite again; even if it does it will not achieve its original level of believe and devotion. Rahim’s this couplet is relevant for every phase of society whether it is modern or ancient. It seems in every level as family, state and country. The best example of this doha is relation of India and Pakistan. Both countries fought first time for the possession of Jammu and Kashmir from the first day of independence from British Empire in 1947. Day by day relation between them is becoming awful. Government have made many policy and plan to construct healthy environment but both country are still behaving as rival of each other and there is a knot in there relation which not seems to be removed. Hence, it is true that once broken relation is very difficult to mend again as earlier relation.

Doha: 2

Rahiman Dekhi Baden Ko, Laghu Na Dijie Daari |

Jaha Kaam Aawai Sui, Kaha Karai Tarwari ||

 

Translation:

Says Rahim do not spurn the trivial seeing the weighty

When you need a sewing needle of what use a sword.

 

Meaning: Rahim says you should not forget small things/poor friends just because you now have access to big/rich, important people. For example you cannot use a sword where you need a needle even though sword is much bigger than needle. In other words never despise the little one on seeing the big one.

Relevance in Modern World: This doha have its own meaning that everyone is equally important and we should not neglect any one either it is big or small, rich or poor. The meaning of Rahim’s this couplet still exist in organic society. By using Structural functional perspective Eminent scholar of sociology Herbert Spencer and Emile Durkheim has been related society with organic structure.  Durkheim introduced the terms "mechanical" and "organic solidarity" as part of his theory of the development of societies. Mechanical solidarity normally operates in "traditional" and small scale societies.  In simpler societies (e.g., tribal), solidarity is usually based on kinship ties of familial networks. Organic solidarity comes from the interdependence that arises from specialization of work and the complementarities between people a development which occurs in "modern" and "industrial" societies. Spencer is popularly known for his treatment of evolution. He also observed some similarities between biological and social organism.  According to both thinkers in society there is interdependence between every part. All units has been assigned different task to run and occur change in society. Every unit have its own importance no one can be neglected such as society is made by individual’s social relation and it cannot be even imagine in absence of any of them. We can also understand the relevance of this Doha with Karl Marx perspective. Marx said that labor class is as important as capitalist. Capitalist cannot produce anything without the support of labor instead having full power and resources. Marx perspective is prominent example for the existence of this couplet in the modern society.

Doha:3

Taruwar Phal Nahi Khaat Hai, Sarwar Piyhi Na Paan |

Kahi Rahim Parkaaj Hit, Sampati Sanchhi Sujaan ||

Translation:

Trees do not eat their own fruits;

Pools don't drink their own water.

 

Meaning: A tree never eats its own fruits and a river never drinks its own water. In the same way, good people are those who accumulates assets for others work.

Relevance in Modern World: Meaning of this doha signify that eminent people work for welfare of society instead of working themselves as trees do not eat their fruits, river don’t drink its water. Relevance of this doha can be seen in modern society also. We have many instance related to this doha as our former president A.P.J. Abdul Kalam who died in 2015 had invented missile for the security of India. M. K. Gandhi and B. R. Ambedkar social reformer who struggled for the right of the underprivileged group to provide them equal place in the society as the other class. It will be not hyperbolic to say that this doha of Rahim is still have prominent and significant meaning in the modern society.

Doha: 4

Jaal Pare Jal Jaat Bahi, Taji Minan Ko Moh

Rahiman Machri Neer Ko Tau Na Chadti Chhoh

 

Translation

A fish is caught in a net and taken away from water. Water lets the fish go.

Look at the love that the fish has for water, the fish prefers death to separation.

 

Meaning: This Doha is related to love, passion, dedication and struggle for life. Rahim explained this couplet by giving the example of fish that how she struggle for life and her willingness for living in water instead getting catch in the net.

Relevance in Modern World:

 “Success consists of going from failure to failure without loss of enthusiasm.”

-Winston Churchill

150 years ago Fredrick Douglas gave this statement that “there is no struggle, there is no progress”. This statement is patron of this doha of Rahim that every creature of god have to fight to live. To provide evidence the relevance of this couplet with the modern world there are many live example. We can count them on finger such as Dhiru Bhai Ambani, Ratan Tata, Amitabh Bachchan, Narendra Modi, Shiv Khera etc. Amitabh Bachchan a blockbuster actor at the Bollywood was bankrupt and his career tanked along with his production house, Amitabh Bachchan Corporation Limited (ABCL). His swift rise and sudden downfall is a true Bollywood tale within Bollywood but he did not surrender and continued to fight. After arrival of KBC series in India slowly, he once again rose to the top in the same field. He proved that passion and dedication is important part of the success. Shiv Khera is another great example of a men who struggle and get success. A writer of inspirational books, he perhaps needed his words the most when he was accused of plagiarism. Post the launch of one of his books, 'Freedom is Not Free', Shiv Khera was accused by a retired civil servant Amrit Lal of plagiarism. While Shiv Khera was dragged to court, he did not give up and continued his writings. He even defended his writings saying he read a lot of books and researched before writing. Some of that research stayed with him. Though he phased many hurdle but did not give up.  He spring back to same profession. Today, his books continue being motivational best-sellers.  Hence it is not hyperbolic to say that struggle and continues effort is the key of success but passion and love is also essential.

Conclusion

The research article herewith finally summarizes the thoughts of the connoisseurs of Indian history. In modern world there are lot of changes made towards westernization but the core of our tradition is much deeper that another culture cannot remove it out. The word of Kabirdas, Rahimdas, Raidas and Tulsidas are still proving to change the individual’s behaviour in India. Many of the great scholars like Swami Vivekanand had tried harder to explain the Doha’s in their own manners but the writing pedagogy of these fours intellectuals is much higher that one may never be able to summarize it in its full meaning. We just made an attempt to do this with our little knowledge of research and still exploring towards the collection of primary data with reference to the perception of Indian public in the regards of these Doha’s. This is the limitation of the research made in the article and will be considered as the future research area for academics. With this research, we have formulated a new dimension to the education policy makers for inculcating the moral values in the Indian Public. This is a suggestion for the Indian government to bring these Doha’s in the eyes of international forums so that India may get more acknowledgements for the contribution made by their Indian Scholars. Theses Doha’s may also be helpful to root out the virus of terrorism and communal discord from the entire globe.

Webliography:

http://www.hindisahityadarpan.in/2015/01/download-raheem-ke-dohe-hindi-ebook-pdf.html

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http://ejnuasio.tumblr.com/post/47102472249/rahim-ke-dohe-pdf-download

www.vidyalaya.us/modx/assets/files/H5/kehetkabir.pdf

www.4shared.com/document/pMtYby0-/Kabir_ke_Dohe.html

https://pearlsofspirituality.wordpress.com/2011/07/18/15/

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