Imapct factor(SJIF): 6.56
Impact of Quality of Work life on overall job satisfaction level and motivational level: A Study of Government Universities in Punjab
Dr. Kawaljit Kaur
M. Com, M. Phil, MBA, UGC, Ph. D
P. G. Dept. of Commerce and Management
Khalsa College, Amritsar
The present study is an endeavour to examine Quality of Work Life of faculty members of Government and Private Universities in Punjab. To identify the factors affecting quality of work life of university teachers and to study the impact of quality of work life on overall job satisfaction level and motivational level among teachers of universities. The universe of the study comprises of faculty members working in government universities of Punjab. Universities were selected on the basis of quota sampling and respondents were selected on the basis of random sampling. Major findings of the study showed that public sector employees are motivated if supportive work environment is provided. They make positive choices and do not follow rat race. They want respect in their work and quality time. Public Sector University teachers were found to be satisfied with co-workers behaviour and job security .
Keywords : Work life, Job Satisfaction, Compensation, Extrinsic factors, Motivation, work environment.
The quality of work life can be explained as the quality of association among the employees and the work surroundings such that the employees have an important pressure in structuring the organizational surroundings in techniques utilized to rise not only their personal inspiration and job satisfaction but also the profits and productivity of the organization. Thurman (1977) it is being recognized that achieving organizational goal is not only the responsibility of management or head of the organization; it is also the responsibility of subordinates of the company. The quality of work life re-emerged where the workers are looking for more sense where increasing levels of education and the occupational desires in current periods gradual growth in economic and decreased chances for the advancement, which naturally leads to the increasing concerns for the QWL and for the planning for the personal life and career ( De Nitish, 1984).
Review of Literature
CLASSIFICATION OF VARIABLES WITH STUDIES REVIEWED
Teacher self-efficiency can be abstracted as belief of each one in their own ability to design, shape and carry those action that are needed to reach goal of education. He describes collective teacher’s efficiency as achieving the goal of institution by working in team. The quality of work life in education sector can be defined as the bond between the teachers and working environment of the universities. Organization must satisfy the requirement of the employees to help them progress and involve them in decision making.
The research studies on this subject have discerned mixed results regarding impact of Quality of Work life on overall job satisfaction level and motivational level among teachers of universities
Grayson (1973) defined quality of work life is significant to the performance of the organization. It is thought by Glasier (1976) that the quality of work life entails the security of job, better working conditions, sufficient and fair reimbursement, more even than equivalent opportunity of employment all together. It is said by Ghosh (1992), that the QWL is a significant feature that affect the inspiration at work. The programs of the quality of work life have two objectives; to improve the satisfaction of the employees and to improve the productivity of the employees (Gardon, 1984).Navalani (1990) has conducted a survey to measure the level of satisfaction of the professional and semi professional manpower working in the university libraries in India with various characteristics of job study. The study reveals that majority of the professionals are satisfied with most of the attributes of their work, but there is a difference in the perception of men and women and seniors and juniors.Hipps and Smith (1991) conducted a study to determine the amount of variance in burnout and job satisfaction in public school teachers and principals. Results of the study suggested that educators were experiencing a significant amount of stress related to their everyday job situations and performance-based accreditation standards.Blix and lee (1994) used the Pearson-Environment Fit model to analyse the lock of fit (misfit) between motivational style and job rewards as a contributing factor in developing occupational stress symptoms in university teachers.Lam (1995) surveyed 350 teacher trainees from Singapore to examine relationships among quality of work life, career commitment, job satisfaction and withdrawal cognition. Results showed that perceptions of the social status of teaching strongly related to commitment to and satisfaction with teaching.Mishra (1996)conducted a study to compare the levels of occupational stress and job satisfaction among male and female teachers of higher educational institutions. Results indicated that significant differences observed between male and female teachers on overall stress and overall job satisfaction scores. Stress was found to be correlated negatively and significantly with job satisfaction in both the groups. Abel and Sewell (1999) investigated differences in the sources of stress between rural and urban schools. For both urban and rural schools, student misbehaviour and time pressures were the leading sources of stress, with no significant differences between groups. Oshagbemi (2000) conducted a study on “Gender differences in job satisfaction of university teachers" to investigate the effects of gender on the job satisfaction of UK teachers. The interaction effect of gender and rank was found to be significant. Female academics at higher ranks namely; senior lecturers, readers and professors were satisfied with their jobs than male academics of comparable ranks. Zingheim and Schuster (2001)While rewards and benefits helps the university in motivating the teachers to perform better, compensation pays a vital role in attracting more talent into the university and retaining them. Berg (2002) job satisfaction is one of the significant factors that impact relationship between teachers and students. Unless the teachers are happy with their current job, they might not be able to demonstrate their commitment in delivering the contents efficiently and there may not be complete utilization of the skills of teachers (Man et. al. 2011).Ellis and Pompli (2002) listed down the various effects when universities lack quality work life. The various issues that can arise are aggression among the employees in the organization due to their low motivation levels, unhealthy relationship between the peers causing disregard to their concerns, negligent learning curve due to lack of prospects to learn new skills which would denigrate the efficiency of employee which transforms to organization effectiveness, quality of deliverables due to lack of focus and lack of participation in organization level decision making which affects the ability of organization to extract new ideas from employees and strive towards innovation.Graca Maria (2002) conducted a study with a view to assess the relative contribution of intrinsic and extrinsic factors in teachers' satisfaction. The study also revealed that psychological constructs had greater predictive value than socio demographic variables in promoting job satisfaction. Weiss (2002) defined job satisfaction as how teachers assess their job constructive or destructive. It is a measure of how people have understood the current work and how they analyse their job under various circumstances and it is found in most of the studies that the highly paid employees tend to have higher job satisfaction and quality of work life (Okpara, 2005). Rao and Sridhar (2003 ) attempted to identify the importance of job satisfaction in the life and career of teachers. The sample consisted of 80 teachers working in secondary schools in Guntur district of Andhra Pradesh. A number of variables such as age, sex, experience, qualification, teaching subjects, location of the school and type of management were examined in relation to the job satisfaction of teachers. Job satisfaction of teachers was found to be independent of sex, location of school (urban/ rural) and the type of management (government /private) also. Feather and Rauter (2004)investigated organizational citizenship behaviours (OCBs) in a sample of 154 school teachers from Victoria, Australia of whom 101 were in permanent employment and 52 on fixed term contracts. Results showed that the contract teachers reported more job insecurity and more OCBs compared to permanent teachers. Turner (2005) analysed the association between the quality of work life with the commitment to university. it is found that there is a considerable association among the willingness to work and the commitment to university. In US, the Sports College is much dependent on the students’ jobs to a greater extent. Ashoob (2006)observed the relationship between organizational commitment and the quality of work life among the High Schools located in the Gonbad-e- Kavus City by using the Walton's eight components of QWL. It is concluded by Ashoob that there is a significant and positive association between the organizational commitment and the quality of work life. Owens (2006) faculties with higher level of commitment also had a higher level of turnover cognitions. Commitment has a major and constructive influence on job performance and on retaining workforce. More committed tutor will perform better at their job than compared to that of the less committed tutors who might not interested in doing their work with full enthusiasm. Saraji and Dargahi (2006) concluded that quality of work life is important to retain the faculties. It is university level program aimed at developing job satisfaction that is to give right income for the good amount of work, which enables faculties to adapt easily to the work environment. Disappointment with quality of work life may affect faculties irrespective of their positions. When the universities starts to identify that the faculties have their lives apart from work, trust and loyalty among faculties is created. Abeid (2007) assessed the relationship between demographic and work variables and job stress. Multiple regressions technique was applied to find out results. The Results showed that (i) there was negative relationship between demographic variables and job stress (ii) there was positive relationship between work variables and job stress and (iii) the work variables affect job stress more than demographic variables. Bhanugopan et al. (2008) it is found in the study that one of the most important factors that were supposed by the respondents is the safe and healthy working environment. Skinner and Ivancevich (2008) urged that QWL is associated with adequate and fair compensation, safe & healthy working conditions, opportunities to develop human capacities, opportunities for continuous growth and job security, more flexible work scheduling and job assignment, careful attention to job design and workflow, better union-management cooperation, and less structural supervision and development of effective work teams. Islam et al. (2009) has conducted a study on the influence of workers quality of work life (QWL) on job satisfaction and organizational performance. The findings suggest QWL although is positively related to organizational performance but it is not significant as hypothesized. However, there is a positive and significant relationship between QWL and employees’ job satisfaction. Finally, conclusion and policy implications are given. Van Hooft et al. (2009) observed in his study that how motives for having a temporary job influence the effects of experienced fairness on work related attitudes. Findings of the study indicated that the temporary employees who accepted it voluntarily, low fairness are related to lower self-reported performance. But the employers who accept their job as a way to obtain permanent employment, fairness is not related to work related attitudes and behavioural intentions but there who ore involuntarily in a temporary job react stronger on fairness and have higher intention to quit. Fattah (2010) investigated the longitudinal effects of pay increments not have a significant effect on teacher's job satisfaction. After pay increase, teachers with high academic attainments were found to be significantly less satisfied with their teaching profession than teachers with low academic attainments. Male teachers were found to be significantly more satisfied with their teaching profession than the female teachers. Ghalawat Suman (2010) conducted a study in professional institutions which aims at identifying the level of participation in decision making in the job, overall experience of employees in the organization, satisfaction level of the employees towards organization Culture & the level of satisfaction among the employees in professional institutions. The results showed that although quality of supervision is good, yet the faculties are not satisfied with present job. They were satisfied with their compensation and other benefits and were not willing to get more training. Skaalvik (2010) conducted a study on “Teacher self-efficacy and teacher burnout a study of relations”, the job satisfaction and work life balance of teacher is an ambiguous term depending on various factors, but directly affects the relationship with students. The factors that accounts for correct work life balance are, how much the teacher was able to enjoy the profession, if they are re-looking to change their career based on available opportunity or quitting the profession due to the stress encountered. Fattah (2011)validated a scale for measuring the quality of work life in higher education. The results of factor analysis and principal components analysis, using a Varimax rotation, showed that building factors of quality of work life consisted of salary and merits, the table of work time, the physical aspects of job, staff participation, suitable supervision, feedback, job value and the possibility of progress, justice in assigning roles and tasks, the psychological, physical and job security, the balance between the individual and organizational goals. Emadzadeh et al. (2012) analysed the quality of work life with the teachers of a primary school in Isfahan city and identified that the quality of work life of the teachers were less compared to that of the average. Though, their inspiration was elevated in spite of dissatisfaction in compensation paid. Sarmah et al. (2012) conducted research on job stress among Secondary School Teachers. Work stressors can be identified in almost all jobs teaching is not an exception. Gender and stressor wise comparison was done by adapting standardized scale named as Indore Teachers Stressor Scale (ITJSS) developed by Dr. Buddhisagar Rathod and Dr. M. Varma.Sheel et al. (2012) worked on quality of work life, employee performance and career growth opportunities. In their research they discussed about the reason why QWL concept has gained momentum because world economics have recently recovered from recession blues and continued restructuring, downsizing and reorganization in the post recession scenario have created havoc for HR managers as they have to struggle with preserving staff morale and job satisfaction. Tabassum (2012) aims to investigate the interrelation between QWL dimensions and job satisfaction of faculty members in the private universities of Bangladesh through quantitative survey on 72 full-time faculty members. The sample includes 11 private universities. The correlation analysis reveals that all the dimensions of QWL are positively correlated with the job satisfaction of faculty members, which indicates that enhancement in the dimensions of QWL, can lead to increased amount of job satisfaction in the private universities of Bangladesh. Mourkani et al. (2013) aimed at investigating the relationship between the QWL and the faculty member’s and staff’s entrepreneurship in Islami Azad University, Izeh Branch during academic year of 2011-12. The results showed that there was a significant positive correlation between the QWL and entrepreneurship and also between the QWL and ambiguity tolerance, risk preference, sense of independent where as there is no significant relationship between QWL and need for achievement, internal control centre and creativity.Lutz C. Kaiser (2014) conducted study on job satisfaction and public service motivation. Based on a unique case study data set analysis job satisfaction and public service motivation in Germany. The findings of the study indicated that a general dominance in intrinsic motivators. Additional these kind of motivators play an important role with regard to building up and keeping job satisfaction in the public sector. Further the results reveals that transferability of competences, autonomy, regular appraisal interviews, and productivity feedback as factors incorporating a positive significance in terms of job satisfaction. Thaynmal P.R. (2014) Conducted study on development of women entrepreneurs in small scale industries in Trinuveli District. The results of the study reveal that development factors of personal innovation and intellectual development have highest loadings on development of women entrepreneurs. Most of women entrepreneurs faced different problems like health problems and social barriers for which proper communication system and motivation is required.
Quality of work life has long been recognized as the key to growth of any organization including universities. The review of the existing literature reveals that a numbers of studies have been carried out on various aspects of quality but a very few comprehensive studies in this area could be found which provides detailed information regarding quality of work life in universities of Punjab region. In the light of the above discussion comprehensive and detailed study regarding universities is of dire need.
The present study is based on primary data and secondary data. In this research, primary data is collected from faculty members of government universities of Punjab, with the help of questionnaire. The secondary data have also been collected from journals, books and various committees such as Yash Pal Committee report 2009, CSO (2008) Statistical Abstracts of Punjab. It includes 3 Public sector universities
SAMPLE AND SAMPLING DESIGN
Universities were selected on the basis of quota sampling and respondents were selected on the basis of random sampling. Data was collected from 250 respondents. The survey was conducted via email and face to face interviews. A structured questionnaire was prepared to meet the objectives. The questionnaire was framed on the basis of previous literature, discussion with experts of the related field.
In order to find out the factors that determine the perception of teachers towards their work environment factor analysis has been applied.
Part: A Perception of Government University Teachers –A Factor Analysis Approach
First of all, the data was examined for its suitability for factor analysis. Reliability is measured by using Crohnbach’s Alpha. Crohnbach’s Alpha ranges from 0 to 1. The Crohnbach’s Alpha of likert scaled items in the questionnaire was 0.732 which is deemed to be good.
This was done by computing the correlation matrix which was depicted enough correlations to carry out factor analysis. Correlation matrix was computed which depicted that there were enough correlations to carry out factor analysis. Communality and factor loadings were high enough to prove the suitability of data as well as the Kaiser-Meyer-Oklin measure of sampling adequacy (KMO) was .715 which indicated that the sample was good enough for sampling. Barlett’s Test of Sphericity showed statistically significant number of correlations among the variables. Hence all the above mentioned parameters revealed that data was fit for factor analysis.
In factor analysis each variable is expressed as linear combinations of underlying factors. The amount of variance a variable shares with all the other variables included in the analysis is defined as communality. Thus, the communality is the amount of variance; a variable shares all the other variables being considered. Communality ranges from o to 1. Zero means common factors do not explain any variance, one means that the common factor explains all the variance.
Total Variance Explained: Public Sector University
Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis.
Table 1.1 indicates the data of public sector universities. This table shows the initial solution. The Eigen values are the total variance attributed to that factor. Any factor that has an Eigen values of less than 1 does not have enough total variance explained to represent a unique factor and is therefore disregarded. The Eigen values represent the total variance explained by each factor. Out of 34 factors listed for assessing quality of work life after applying factor analysis, it is clear from the Table 1.1 explaining the total variance that 12 factors extracted together for 62.357% of total variance so it is possible to economize on the number of variables from 34 to 12.
The 1st factor explains the largest portion of the total variance. The 2nd factor for the most of the residual variance, subject to being uncorrelated with the first factor. The second factor explains the second highest variance and so on. The Eigen values for the factors are in decreasing order of magnitude as we move from variable 1 to variable 12. Factor 1 accounts for a variance 4.885 which (4.885/34) or 14.367% of the total variance. Likewise the second factor accounts for (2.566/3.4) or 7.548% of total variance and so on.
Principal Component Analysis with Varimax Rotation: Public Sector University
Referring to table 1.2, factor loadings are the correlations between the variables and the factors. A coefficient with a large absolute value indicates that the factor and the variables are closely related. The coefficient of the factor matrix is used interpret the factors. Although the initial and unrotated factor matrix indicates the relationship between the factors and the individual variables, it seldom results in factors that can be interpreted, because the factors are correlated with many variables therefore, through rotation, the factor matrix is transformed into a simple one that is easier to interpret. Rotation does not affect communalities and the percentage of total variance explained.
The method used for rotation is the varimax procedure. This method of rotation minimizes the number of variable, with high loadings on a factor, thus enhancing the interpretability of factors. Rotations brings simplicity, higher the factor loadings, a stronger is the correlation between factors and the variables. All factor loadings greater than 0.5 have been considered for factor analysis.
Naming of Factors (Public Sector)
The final factors have been categorized on the basis of variables represented in each case. The names of factors statements in the factor and factor loadings have been shown in Table 1.3
Naming of Factors: Public Sector University
Factor 1: Job satisfaction and self esteem
This suggests that factor 1 is the combinations of four variables. Faculty of public sector university perceives that there exists job satisfaction and self esteem. This factor explains (7.965%) variance with 4 statements. Highest coefficient is for the statement F3, “Good relationship with co-workers” (0.639), followed by F12 “Faculty members have friendly relations with each other” (0.669) whereas next variable F13 states that “Fellow colleagues are ready to help in distress” (0.708) and one more statement which is extracted in factor 1 is F16 “feeling of satisfaction after performing my work”. Our results go hand in hand with the results of study conducted by Schulz and Pauline (2009), Johansson and Heikinaro(2004) who too found that teachers derived most of their job satisfaction from interpersonal relations.
Factor 2: Effort Recognition and Career Progression
This factor explains a combination of 5 statements with 7.309% of variance. The statement F7 scored the highest score. It is sufficient motivational strategies” (0.577), followed by F8 “support from top management is helpful in accomplishing a task” (0.628). The statement F 9 states that “university recognizes and acknowledge my work” with factor loadings 0.643 is also a combination of F10 “Adequate opportunities for self improvement and career progression” (0.515) and statement F24 All the faculty members generally support all the members of the universities with factor loadings 0.695.
Factor 3: Employee loyalty and growth
This factor explains 6.032% of variance with 4 statements. These statements indicate that employees committed towards their duties and sufficient promotional opportunities are provided to deserving employees. The highest Varimax coefficient is secured by the statement F5, “Effective Promotional Opportunities in the University” (0.584), followed by F15, “On the basis of my own standards; I am satisfied with Personal Development” (0.510). Other two statements are related to commitment and good communication system, are loaded on the same factor. These are F28 , “Faculty members in this university communicate well with each other” with factor loadings 0.787 and F29, “All the members generally committed to their work”. (0.587).The results contradict with studies conducted by Sonmezer and Eryaman (2008).
Factor 4: Quality on Work Place
Public university provides maximum facilities to conduct research work as well as to perform other activities. Factor 4 the explaining 4.920% of variance with 2 statements. The statement F2, “My University provides maximum facilities for doing to my work properly” (0.688) followed by F 17 “Feeling good about the quality of work performed” (0.515).Bhanugopal et.al. (2008) also found that there is correlation between quality of work life and work environment.
Factor 5: Conducive Environment
The 5th factor explains 4.897% of variance of 2 statements. The highest coefficient is 0.725 in case of the statement F6, “Good safety measures adopted at my university” followed by F22, “I do not feel under pressure from anybody in carrying out my duties” (0.579) employees feels comfortable is this environment and work efficiently. It is also found in the study of Mirvis and Lawler (1984) that quality of work life is associated to working environment, working hours and safe working conditions.
Factor 6: Lower Self Esteem
Factor 6 enlists negative statements which lead to low the morale of employees. It consists of 2 statements. Factor 6 explains 4.820% of variance. The highest coefficient is .816 in case of statement F18, “There are many political problems in this university” and F27, “Most of my activities are routine and boring” with factor loadings of 0.484.
Factor 7: Employee Development
Factor 7 enlists statements related to employee development. 7th factor explains 4.679% of variance with 2 statements. The statement F 21, “I am developing new skills and abilities at work” 0.704 followed by F34, “My superior always allows to attend refresher courses and conferences” with factor loading of 0.558.
Factor 8: Workload other than teaching
This factor is a combination of 2 statements with 4.487% of variance. The statement F32 highlights that “I feel too much burdened for research work” (0.582) followed by other statement F33 “My university organizes FDP for the up gradation of faculty” (0.815). These statements create extra burden other than teaching on university faculty.
Factor 9: Rationality
Factor 9 enlists favourable statements which lead to job satisfaction among public sector university faculty. It consists of 2 statements. Factor 9 explains 4.64% of variance. The highest coefficient is 0.754, in case of statement F11, “Favouritism does not play any part in the Institution” and F25, “Faculty members are given recognition for their creative work” (0.511).
Factor 10: Organizational Satisfaction
The 10th factor explains 4.309% of variance with 2 statements the statement F2 scores highest score, “Job security exists at my university” (0.741), followed by F14 “I feel that my superiors give reasonable attention to my suggestions are regards method of work” (0.566).
Factor 11: Organization Communication and Economic Benefits
This factor explains 4.269% of the variance with 2 statements. This factor features that there is two way communications to make healthy environment and economic benefits are reasonably provided to the faculty. The highest varimax coefficient is secured by the statement F1, “There is reasonable periodical increase in my salary” (0.795), followed by F23, “There is an active flow of ideas” with factor loadings 0.501.
Factor 12: Critical Factors
The factor 12th explains 4.205% of variance with 2 negative statements. The statement F19, “Ready to shift job at same position in a different organization” (0.586) followed by F26, “Employer overdrive the employees” with factor loadings of 0.70%.
1. The study is limited to educational sector alone.
2. The study is limited to only the higher education universities among the educational institutions.
Faculty of public sector university perceives that there exists job satisfaction and self esteem.The employees are committed towards their duties and sufficient promotional opportunities are provided to deserving employees. Public university also provides maximum facilities to conduct research work as well as to perform other activities but university employees perceive that there is politics among teachers that creates dissatisfaction among teachers regarding work environment.
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