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Editorial Board A Refereed Monthly International Journal of Management
Prof. B. P. Sharma
(Editor in Chief)
Prof. Mahima Birla
(Additional Editor in Chief)
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(Editor)
Ms. Asha Galundia
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 Editorial Team

Dr. Devendra Shrimali
Dr. Dharmesh Motwani
 

Emotional Stability, Age and Work Experience: An Analytical Study

Nongmeikapam Jinalee,

Research Scholar, Dept. of Management, Mizoram University

Dr. Amit Kumar Singh,

Assistant Professor, Dept. of Management, Mizoram University

Emotional Stability, Age and Work Experience: An Analytical Study

Nongmeikapam Jinalee, Research Scholar, Dept. of Management, Mizoram University

Dr. Amit Kumar Singh, Assistant Professor, Dept. of Management, Mizoram University

 

Abstract:

Emotional stability enables a person to understand the feelings of others and helps in controlling his/ her own emotions in different situations. An emotional intelligent person is emotionally stable. So in this study, emotional intelligence has been used to determine emotional stability. The study has been designed to determine the relationship between emotional stability and age as well as with work experience. The study reveals that emotional stability is not significantly related with age and work experience. It is something with the personal self. Being in a high position, aged or having many years of experience do not signify emotional intelligence and emotional stability.

Keywords: Emotional intelligence, emotional stability, age, work experience, employees, competencies, abilities etc.

Introduction

Emotional intelligence (EI) enables a person in handling relationships with others called interpersonal and controlling their own emotion which is called intrapersonal. It consists of a set of competencies that signifies an understanding and control of emotions in our self and others. Basically, the emotional competence is the ability of learning based on emotional intelligence. Emotional intelligence based learning can lead to superior performance (Fletcher, 2001). So emotional intelligence can bring emotional stability and rightly Orme (2003) pointed out that EI means understanding emotions of self, emotions of others and it is taking favourable actions on the basis of our understanding of emotions. It helps one in dealing with problems in life in a positive way and it can enhance effectiveness in workplace as well as in life.

A classic study of group IQ conducted by Williams and Sternberg (2013) showed that interpersonal skills and compatibility of group members are key to their performance. The members who were not social and unaware of others’ feelings lacked the ability to resolve differences and effective communication in the group. The presence of at least one high- IQ member was required for good performance but this alone was not sufficient enough and a member who was too dominating did not allow full contribution of others. A group needs motivation so if the members are taken care, they are committed to their goals and will work harder. Thus social effectiveness of a group predicts how well the group is doing than individuals. Groups can perform better when there is internal harmony and the full talent of their members can be utilised.

Emotional intelligence is an important area but it lacks empirical studies. Emotions are very high in most of the developing countries like India, Pakistan etc. Emotions are found to play a significant role in the work environment but it is surprising that its significance has been given due recognition very recently. Some decades back, organisations didn’t allow their employees to show expressions of emotions like fear, anger, love, frustration etc. and always attempted to create an environment free of emotions. Emotions were considered as a hindrance to employee performance and organisational growth. But emotional signals like tone of voice, choice of words, posture, gesture, timing etc. can speak a lot and they have the unseen power to keep a conversation continue or cease. Smooth coordination of non- verbal gestures depends on emotional channels as much as on the content of what is said and done (Goleman, 2013).

Literature Review

The Emotional Quotient- I scores show that there is a significant relationship between emotional intelligence and various aspects of occupational performance. The study was conducted to examine the relationship between emotional intelligence and occupational performance. In this study, the EQ- I scores of 1171 US Air Force (USAF) recruiters were compared with their ability to meet the annual recruitment quotas. The recruiters were divided based on the criteria: high performers (those who can fulfil 100% of their annual quota), and low performers (those who met less than 80% of their quota). Discrimination function analysis indicated that EQ- I scores could identify accurately the high and low performers based on regression correlation of 0.53, which shows that the relationship between emotional intelligence and occupational performers is moderately high (Bar- On et al., 2006).

Fariselli, Ghini and Freedman (2006) conducted a study on age and emotional intelligence. The study was done on 405 American people between 22-70 years of age. The data was analysed through a statistical method called Linear Aggression to discover if age predicts emotional intelligence or not. The finding shows that emotional intelligence slightly increases with age. There is positive, significant but weak relationship between age and emotional intelligence. From this study it can be observed that older people are slightly more likely to be higher in emotional intelligence. The study suggests that emotional intelligence is a developing ability and accumulated life experiences contribute to emotional intelligence.

Krishnaveni & Deepa conducted a study to diagnose the EI of the employees of the IT/ ITES sector of South India. This study also aimed to analyse the impact of demographic variables like gender, age and education on the EI skills of the employees. Unstructured interview was conducted with 168 respondents by convenience sampling. A 47 item instrument was also designed and distributed to the respondents. The results of the study found significant difference in the perception score and EI score between men and women. Respondents in the age group 41- 60 have higher EI score but there is no significant correlation between age and EI. Education does not have influence on EI and its constituents. Hence from the study it can be concluded that the relation between age, experience and EI need further studies as the results of the study are found contrary with the literature reviews (Krishnaveni & Deepa, 2011).

Another study on intra departmental communication and employees’ reaction to organisational change was conducted by Tang and Gao (2012) with a purpose to investigate the moderating effect of employee emotional intelligence on the relationship of intra-departmental communications and employees’ reaction towards organisational change. Data were collected from a large state owned enterprise (SEO) in the telecommunication industry of China. The study found out that intra- department communications positively influence employee’s reaction to organisational change. Also employee emotional intelligence moderates the relationship i.e., when employees’ emotional intelligence is higher, intra departmental communication has greater positive effect on employees’ reaction to change. From the observation of the study it can be suggested that in order to maintain employees’ positive reactions to change, managers and organisations must develop strategies to improve employees’ emotional intelligence so that they can accept future changes.

Shipley et al., (N. D) conducted a research on the effects of EI on age, work experience and week for a minimum academic performance. A questionnaire comprising of 30 questions with a 7 point Likert Scale was administered to 193 college of business students at a South Eastern University. Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (TEIQue) developed by K. V. Petrides was considered as a base while framing the questions. Academic performance was measured using self- reported overall college grade points average (GPA). To measure work experience the students were divided into two categories: students who had full- time work experience and those who did not have full- time work experience. Students who worked 40 or more hours per week for a minimum of one year were considered to work full time. Simple regression analysis was done to determine if EI was positively related with work experience or not. One way ANOVA was also done. Multiple linear regression was also performed to determine if EI was positively associated with academic performance or not. The study found that EI was significantly associated with work experience. The ANOVA results show that there was a significant difference between the average EI scores among students that had full time work experience and those who did not have full time work experience. EI was not significantly associated with GPA. The results show that there was a significant difference between at least one of the average “well- being” scores among the three categories of GPA. This study confirmed that EI is positively associated with work experience. Also certain sub- factors of EI are related to academic performance as measured by GPA. Age was not positively correlated with EI. From this study, it can be suggested that students with a mid- range of CGP (3.0- 3.4) need to develop EI skills to a greater extent than students at lower and higher end of spectrum. It would be an added value if business schools add practical courses that would help students to attain high EI skills so as to perform better in workplace.

Research Gap

Relevant literatures have been reviewed and the literatures are evident that research on EI has been done mostly related to performance and leadership. Studies on EI in relation to age and work experience are still in the infancy stage. Some studies are found but the literatures offer mixed nature demanding further empirical studies.

Significance and Scope of the study

Emotional stability can be achieved when a person has emotional intelligence. Emotional intelligence enables a person to understand the feelings of others in different situations and helps in decision making. If a person is emotionally stable, he/ she can acknowledge identify, accept and reflect feelings.

The present study is confined to the employees of Babina HealthCare and Hospitality Industries Pvt. Ltd., Imphal, Manipur. The study is designed to examine the emotional stability, age and work experience of the employees. Emotional intelligence, age, work experience, emotions like: fear, anger, surprise, neutral etc. have been used to conduct the study.

Research Design

Statement of the problem

HealthCare and Hospitality employees have a demanding job. Sometimes they cannot enjoy family time during festivals and family occasions. There can also be rude customers but they have to always display a smiling face. These situations can create emotional stress and ultimately leading to emotional instability at workplace.

The problem of the study is to investigate the emotional stability of the employees and also to examine the relationship between emotional stability, age and work experience of the employees.

Objectives of the study

The study has the following objectives with regard to the selected organisation:

  1. To investigate the emotional stability of the employees
  2. To examine the relationship between emotional stability and age of the employees
  3. To examine the relationship between emotional stability and work experience of the employees

Hypotheses of the Study

  1. Ho: There is no significant relationship between emotional stability and age of the employees

     Ha: There is a significant relationship between emotional stability and age of the employees

  1. Ho: There is no significant relationship between emotional stability and work experience of the employees

     Ha: There is a significant relationship between emotional stability and work experience of the employees

Research methodology

An analytical study has been conducted with an aim to investigate the emotional stability of the employees in the selected organisation. Out of the total 750 employees, 150 samples have been taken using stratified random sampling. The employees have been stratified as top level (Managers and assistant managers), middle level (team leaders, supervisors and department in- charge) and lower level (rest of the staffs).

Both primary and secondary data have been used to conduct the study. Primary data have been collected using self administered close ended questionnaire, which have been framed by taking The Mayer- Salovey Model of EI (1997), Goleman’s model (2001) and the Bar- On’s model of EI (2002) as the base. To study the emotional stability of the employees, their emotional intelligence has been measured using the questionnaire.

Various statistical tools have been used for data analysis and interpretation. Mean, standard deviation, frequency count, Cronbach’s alpha, normality test have been used. Both the hypotheses have been tested using One- way ANOVA.

 

Analysis and Interpretation

The first part represents the demographic profile of the respondents

 

Demographic variables

                  Table 1: Gender of the respondents

Gender

No. of respondent

Percentage (%)

 

Male

92

61.33

 

Female

58

38.67

 

Total

150

100

 

                                 (Source: Field survey)

Table 1 shows the gender of the respondents. The gender of the respondents has been divided into two groups: male and female. Out of 150 respondents, 92 (61.33 %) are male and 58 (38.67%) are female.

                   Table 2: Job designation of the respondents

Job designation

No. of respondent

Percentage (%)

 

Managerial level

23

15.33

 

Middle/ supervisorial level

31

20.67

 

Lower level

96

64.00

 

Total

150

100

 

                                          (Source: Field survey)

Table 2 shows the job designation of the employees. Out of the total 150 respondents, 23(15.33%) belong to the managerial level, 31 (20.67%) belong to the middle/ supervisorial level and 96(64%) belong to the lower level.

To find the emotional stability, emotional intelligence scale has been used and it has been tested by reliability by using Cronbach’s Alpha test as under:

           

 

 

 

Table 3: Reliability Statistics of Emotional Intelligence Scale

Cronbach’s Alpha

Cronbach’s Alpha Based on Standardised Items

 

No. of Items

0.745

 

0.781

25

                                                 (Source: Calculated value)

Table 3 shows the value of Cronbach’s Alpha, α= 0.745, close to the optimum value of Alpha= 1.000. Alpha value= 0.745 denotes that 74.5% of the variability in a composite score is true and consistent and hence shows reliability by combining all the 25 items in the scale. It also shows the Cronbach’s Alpha based on standardised items to be 0.781 and the difference between the two values is that α= 0.781 has been calculated based on the pre- test or pre assumption that all scales have the same variance which in actual practice is not possible and not true because there will be always some variance in the scale or items. Therefore, first α value is taken.

                                    Table 4: Emotional Intelligence

Particulars

Manager

 

 

Middle/ supervisorial level

Lower level

 

No. of respon-dents

 

Percen-tage (%)

Male

 

Female

 

Male

Female

Male

Female

Emotional intelligent

14

 

8

 

16

10

   52

   30

130

 

86.67

 

 

Emotionally not intelligent

0

1

5

0

5

9

20

13.33

Total

14

9

21

10

57

39

 

 

   150

 

 

100

Grand total

23

31

96

 

                     

                                                    (Source: Field survey)

Table 4 shows the number of respondents who are emotionally intelligent and who are emotionally not intelligent. EI has been calculated by finding the percentage of the total sum of Likert points for each individual. If the percentage score of the total sum is found to be 70% and above, then the respondent is said to be emotional intelligent (Chitale et al., 2013). Out of 150 respondents, 130 (86.67%) respondents have 70% and above scores so they are considered to be emotional intelligent; and 20 (13.33%) respondents have scores below 70% so they are considered to be emotionally not intelligent. Therefore, 86.67% of the employees are emotionally stable and 13.33% of them are not emotionally stable.

Testing hypotheses

Before hypotheses testing, the variables have been tested for normality which is shown below:

                    Graph 1: Histogram of EI/ EQ        

Graphs 1, 2 and 3 have shown that the data of emotional intelligence quotient, EQ- score is normally distributed and can undergo hypothesis testing. The histogram (graph 1) is plotted with the EQ- score on the X- axis and frequency of the values of EQ- score on the Y- axis. The histogram is found to be approximately a bell curve, representing a normal distribution with mean 93.19 and standard deviation 6.028.

Graph 2 shows normal Q-Q plot of EQ- score. Observed value and expected value are plotted on the graph and the values are found to be aligned in a straight line indicating a normal distribution.

Boxplot of EQ- score is shown in graph 3 and it is used to test symmetry. A test of symmetry is a sufficient substitute for normality and in the graph the boxes on each side are almost symmetry.

Hypotheses Testing

Hypothesis 1

. Ho: There is no significant relationship between emotional stability and age of the employees

   Ha: There is a significant relationship between emotional stability and age of the employees

The first hypothesis is tested using One- way ANOVA. The result of the test with descriptive statistics is shown as under:

                       Table 5: Mean score of EI for different age groups

Age of the respondent in years

No. of respondent

Mean score of responses

Std. deviation

Percentage (%)

 

Below 20

3

93.33

2.309

2.00

 

20- 30

74

93.92

6.425

49.33

 

30- 40

56

92.54

7.746

37.33

 

40 and above

17

92.53

7.970

11.33

 

Total

150

93.23

7.052

99.99= 100 (approx.)

 

                                                             (Source: Field survey)

Table 5 shows the distribution of the total 150respondents according to their age and the age of the respondents is divided into four groups: below 20 years, 20-30 years, 30-40 years and 40 years and above. From this table it can be seen that maximum respondents are in the age group of 20-30 years followed by those in the age group of 30-40 years.

Table 6: ANOVA result for age groups and EQ

Particulars

Sum of squares

 

Df

Mean square

F

Sig.

Between groups

124.019

 

 

3

41.130

 

 

 

1.141

 

 

 

0.335

Within groups

 

5072.536

140

36.232

Total

 

   5196.556

 

143

 

                                              (Source: Calculated value)

The test of variance is found to be non- significant since the value of F= 1.141 and p- value = 0.335, which is greater than 0.05. From the result of this test, it can be assumed that there is no significant difference in emotional intelligence among different age groups. Hence, the null hypothesis is accepted and alternative hypothesis is rejected. Thus emotional stability is not significantly related with age.

 

Hypothesis 2

     Ho: There is no significant relationship between emotional stability and work experience of the employees

     Ha: There is a significant relationship between emotional stability and work experience of the employees

The second hypothesis is also tested using One- way ANOVA. The result of the test with descriptive statistics is given below:

Table 7: Mean score of EI in comparison to work experience

Work experience of the respondents in years (yr)

 

No. of male

No. of female

Total

Mean score of responses

Std. deviation

Percentage (%)

Below 1 yr

11

12

23

93.70

6.255

15.33

 

(1-3) yr

18

13

31

92.10

5.974

20.67

 

(3-6) yr

28

17

45

93.24

7.330

30.00

 

(6-9) yr

19

8

27

92.81

8.143

18.00

 

9 yr and above

16

8

24

94.71

7.486

16.00

 

Total

92

58

150

93.23

7.052

100

 

(Source: Field survey)

Table 7 shows work experience of the respondents and it is divided into five groups: below 1year, (1-3) years, (3-6) years, (6-9) years and 9 years and above. The table clearly shows that maximum of the respondents have work experience between (3-6) years.

                   Table 8: ANOVA result of work experience and EQ

Particulars

Sum of squares

 

Df

Mean square

F

Sig.

Between groups

243.436

 

 

4

60.859

 

 

 

1.708

 

 

 

0.152

Within groups

 

4953.120

139

35.634

Total

 

   5196.556

 

143

 

                                                 (Source: Calculated value)

The test of variance is found to be non- significant as the value F= 1.708 and p- value = 0.152 which is greater than 0.05. From the result of this test, it can be assumed that there is no significant difference in emotional intelligence among the employees having different years of work experience. Hence, the null hypothesis is accepted and alternative hypothesis is rejected. Thus, there is no significant relationship between emotional stability and work experience.

Findings, Conclusion and Suggestions

Findings

The summary of the findings are listed below:

1) Out of 150 respondents, 49.33% of the respondents were in the age group of (20-30) years and 37.33% of the respondents were in the age group of (30- 40) years. Thus, majority of the respondents belong to the age group (20- 30) years followed by the age group (30-40) years. There are many senior employees who are above 40 years of age and a small number of respondents are found to be below 20 years of age. Thus, the organisation has a majority of young workforce.

2) The organisation has a number of staffs working for more than nine years and maximum of the respondents were found to have work experience between three to six years. This figure shows that employee turnover is low.

3) Almost an equal number of male and female employees were found to occupy all the different levels of job. However, the number of male employees is leading in all levels but the difference is not very big. So it can be generalised that the organisation is providing equal job opportunities to deserving persons irrespective of their gender.

4) 86.67% of respondents were found to have EQ- score 70% and above so they are emotionally stable and the remaining 13.33% are emotionally not stable as their EQ- score is below 70%. Out of 23 managers under study, 22 were found to be emotionally stable, 26 middle level/ supervisors were found to be emotionally stable from the total 31 of them and 82 lower level employees were found to be emotionally stable out of the total 96. From this result, it can be generalised that nearly 86% of the employees in the organisation are emotionally stable, leaving only a small percentage of emotionally instable employees.

5) When a one- way ANOVA was conducted to find the significant relation between different age groups and emotional stability, the F value was found to be 1.141 and p- value to be 0.335 which is greater than 0.05. This result shows that there is no significant difference among different age groups and emotional stability. Hence, emotional stability cannot be decided by age group. Being in a higher age group does not indicate one would be emotionally stable and being in a lower age group does not indicate one would be emotionally less stable.

6) In order to find the significant relation between work experience and emotional stability, a one- way ANOVA was conducted by dividing the work experience into different groups. The test of variance was not significant since the value of F was 1.708 with p- value 0.152, which is greater than 0.05. This result shows that there is no significant difference in emotional stability of employees having different years of work experience. From the study it can be assumed that work skills improve with work experience but there is no certainty that emotional stability  will also improve along with work experience.

7) Employees are found to be emotionally intelligent but many of them seem to disagree that emotions are beneficial to the organisation and they appear to deny their own emotional competencies.

Conclusion

Emotional intelligence can bring in emotional stability and so a balance of different emotional feelings can be achieved. Like intelligence can be improved, emotional stability can also be attained with emotional intelligence. Age and work experience are not strong predictors of emotional intelligence according to the results obtained in the study. However, it does not indicate that emotional intelligence and emotional stability cannot be improved. It is a hint that there is a need for further empirical studies on human emotions with variables like age, gender, work experience, gender etc.

 

 

Suggestions

  • Emotional intelligence quotient (EQ) can be used to check the psychological wellbeing of employees and individuals.
  • Emotions of the employees should not be neglected and must be addressed properly and in time by the management in private.
  • Employees are emotionally intelligent but many of them reject that emotions are beneficial to the organisation, so management should make sure that the employees express their true emotion freely.
  • Counselling class, yoga and meditation facility should be provided to improve the emotional stability of the employees.
  • The HR team should identify employees who are very emotional at earliest and they should be given counselling to help them attain emotional stability.
  • Sometimes playful communication among employees can help in reenergising and creative thinking.
  • Leaders and management must be well aware of non- verbal communication such as posture, tone of voice, facial expressions, the pace of conversation etc. Understanding non- verbal communication can help in good decision making.
  • Employees should focus on listening when communicating with others. Instead of thinking what to respond, one should develop a habit of attentive listening.
  • Emotionally stable team can enhance team capabilities and coordination to achieve goals.
  • Employees need not hide their true emotions every time. They should have the courage to show their true emotion when they really feel the need of letting others know of it.

References

Bar-On, R., Handley, R., & Fund, S. (2006). The Impact of Emotional Intelligence on Performance. In V. U. Druskat, F. Sala & G. Mount (Eds.), Linking emotional intelligence and performance at work: Current research evidence with individuals and groups (pp. 3-19). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.

Chitale, A. K.,  Mohanty, R. P., and Dubey, N .R. (2013). Organisational Behaviour: texts and cases. India: PHI Learning Private Limited, 306-329.

Fletcher, C. (2001). Performance appraisal and management: The developed research agenda. Journal of occupational and organisational psychology, 7 (4), 473-487.

Fariselli. L., Ghini. M., & Freedman, J. (2006). Age and Emotional Intelligence. Retrived from https://www.6seconds.org/sei/media/WP_EQ_and_Age. Accessed the 12th April 2016, at 7.40 p.m.

Goleman, D. (2013). Working with Emotional Intelligence. Thomson Press India Ltd. New Delhi. 201, 205, 166, 167, 246.

Krishnaveni, R. & Deepa, R. (2011,Sep). Diagnosing Employee’s Emotional Intelligence in the IT/ ITES sector of South India. Great Lakes Herald. 5 (2), 1-23.

Orme, G. (2003). Emotional Intelligence and the performance of call centre staff. Competency and Emotional Inteligence, 10 (2), 40-41.

Shipley, N. L., Jackson, M. J., & Segrest, S. L. (Undate). The effects of emotional intelligence, age, work experience and academic performance. Research in Higher Education Journal, 1-18.                                                                                            Retrived from http://www.aabri.com/manuscripts/10535.pdf

Tang, C., & Gao, Y. (2012). Intra department communication and employees’ reaction to organisational change: The moderating effect of Emotional intelligence. Journal of Chinese Human Resource Management, 3 (2), 100-117.

Williams, W. & Sterberg, R. (2013). The Classic study: Group Intelligence. In Goleman, D. (2013). Working with Emotional Intelligence. New Delhi: Thomson Press India Ltd. 205.

 
 

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