Imapct factor(SJIF): 6.56
A Refereed Monthly International Journal of Management
PROBLEMS AND GRIEVANCE HANDLING SYSTEM
DTH TV SERVICES
Author 1: Ms. Kamalpreet Kaur
Affiliation: Senior Research Fellow, School of Management Studies
Punjabi University Patiala
Email: email@example.com, Contact No. 7526875187
Author 2: Dr. Amar Inder Singh
Affiliation: Professor, School of Management Studies
Punjabi University Patiala
Email: firstname.lastname@example.org, Contact No. 9855468641
PROBLEMS AND GRIEVANCE HANDLING SYSTEM IN DTH TV SERVICES
This study was done to study the contentment level of consumers regarding the consumer grievance redressal system of DTH TV Services and to investigate the problems faced by DTH TV users in Punjab. Convenience sampling was used to select the sample from urban and rural area of Punjab. Three districts from urban area and three districts from rural area were selected on the basis of the highest urban population and highest rural population respectively. The study was based on the primary and secondary data. The primary data was collected with the help of structured questionnaire. The collected data was analysed by using Frequency analysis, Percentage analysis and Garrett Ranking Techniques. The study found that in urban areas, most of the respondents were satisfied with the 24*7 accessibility of DTH service provider at call centre but they were dissatisfied because of the redressal which was not made within 24 hours. In rural areas also most of the respondents were satisfied with the 24*7 accessibility of DTH service provider at call centre but they were dissatisfied with toll free number provided to make call without any charges. The most significant problem faced by the DTH users was Signal problem. DTH companies should solve these problems and make the customer experience good at grievance handling system.
Keywords: DTH TV, Problems, Grievance Handling, Signal Problems, Toll Free
From its inception in January 2001, DTH is growing throughout India continuously with expanding technology, reliable infrastructure, trustworthy customer service, interactive services, price competitive offers, etc. After ten years of the beginning of the LPG-era in 1991 after the liberalization of the broadcasting industry , there were numerous networks which were based on the other country's network STAR network, a Hong Kong based DTH, entered in India. This was followed by introduction of Zee TV, first private Indian channel broadcast over cable. Cable TV network was the dominant Pay - TV pay-TV distribution platform in India, with a 75 percent market share, while the satellite TV network had 25 percent. However, the average revenue per satellite subscriber is in position to overtake cable TV average revenue per satellite. DTH TV services have proved to be the great competitor to the cable TV network. With the increase in disposable income of Indian customers, the choice for wide channels options and at the same time to have tailored packages by the television households encourages the growth of DTH services in India in 2001. In 2004, Dish TV network was the earliest DTH service provider to obtain the recognition by the government. (Joteshwari et.al, 2014)
DTH services have been proposed in 1996 for the first time in India, but the government did not give permission because there were concerns about national security and cultural invasion. In 1997 the government forced a ban even when the Rupert Murdoch Indian Sky Broadcasting (Isky B) owned was about to launch its DTH services in India. Finally, DTH was allowed in 2000. The new policy required that after getting license, all the operators should set up earth stations in India within 12 months. The limit for DTH licenses is not number restricted (Sutha and Jayanthi, 2013).
With the rapid development of digital technology, DTH broadcast operators worldwide introduced a number of new interactive applications in TV market, with a variety of entertainment programs on a single delivery platform. In addition, since the digital technology allows for a highly efficient use of the spectrum, the number of television channels may be broadcast using digital technology that is much larger than in the analog technology. The increased number of TV channels allows the operator to meet the demand of a number of niche markets with its own transmission.
DTH is defined as the reception of satellite programs with a personal dish in an individual home. DTH service is one in which a various channels are digitally compressed, encrypted and beamed from highly powered satellites. The programs can be received directly at the houses. This type of reception requires small dish antenna installed at appropriate locations. DTH transmission requires no commercial intermediaries, only an individual user is connected directly to the DTH operator. However, a digital receiver (set-top box) is essential to receive the multiplexed signals and display them on a television.
DTH does not compete with CAS; cable and DTH are two methods for the delivery of TV content. CAS is a fundamental part of both the systems in the provision of pay-TV.
India currently has seven major DTH service providers and 84.80 million registered subscriber households in as of December 2015 out of which 55.98 million are active subscribers. The private DTH players Dish TV (a Zee TV subsidiary), Tata Sky, Videocon D2H, Sun Network in possession 'Sun direct DTH "Reliance Digital TV, DTH service Bharti Airtel' Airtel Digital TV" and the public sector DD direct plus owned by Prasar Bharti (TRAI, Performance Indicators Report, 2015).
TRAI (2007) presented a consultation paper on the Direct to Home DTH vs. Cableing Services (Standards of Quality of Service and Redressal of Grievances) Regulations, 2007. The paper provided provisions regarding direct to home service, its connection, disconnection, and transfer and shifting, billing for direct to home service. The paper consulted on grievance redressal provisions regarding redressal of direct to home subscriber grievances by nodal officers, complaints forwarded by authority to Direct to Home operator for redressal of grievances of direct to home subscriber and obligation of direct to home operator for direct to home subscriber education and prevention of grievances. The authority had made an effort to balance the interests of the consumers and their concerns as well as the considerations stated above relating to the growth of the industry. Umapathy (2007) had undertaken a study titled Industry Analysis- DTH Industry in India. The environmental analysis of DTH Industry was done by utilizing Porter’s model to analyse the threat of substitutes, bargaining power of suppliers, bargaining power of buyers, Inter-firm rivalry and the threat of new entrants. The substitutes of DTH TV were terrestrial television, Cable TV and Internet Protocol Television; which acted as a threat for DTH television. There was a very high inter firm rivalry in DTH industry because of price wars and litigations. There was high bargaining power of suppliers and buyers. The buyers had lots of options and substitutes and the buyers were price sensitive too; which lead to high bargaining power. The threat of new entrants was low in DTH industry because the DTH market has already seven established firms. The study also discussed challenges faced by the industry. The challenges faced by the industry were policy and regulation, the rule of “must carry”, cap on foreign investment, cap on cable company or broadcast investment, interoperability issues, non-availability of transponders, weak financials, technical glitch like rain fade and poor levels of services. It was recommended that friendliness policy, better quality of service and accelerated subscriber base and revenue growth should be concerned to increment their market share. Kohli and Modani (2011) put light on the Sector Report on Indian DTH Industry by IndiaNivesh. DTH Industry had six private players, namely Dish TV, Tata Sky, Airtel Digital TV, Reliance BIG TV, Sun Direct and Videocon and one public player namely DD Direct +. Penetration of cable dry areas, transparency in reporting, carriage capacity, government’s support and user-friendly interface were the magnification drivers of DTH industry. The study also put light on key regulations like licensing, service quality, inter-connect, and reference inter-connect. Dish had got highest percentage share among DTH players of 31%. Competitive intensity, threat from cable operators, regulatory and television risks, capital requisites and debt were of a big concern; these were the risks and concerns in DTH industry, which DTH players had to be understood. Kaur and Kumar (2012) put light on Direct to Home Television: A Review. DTH is defined as the reception of satellite programs with a personal dish in an individual home. The key features of DTH are MPEG-4, DVB-S2, Pause and Record, Movies on Demand, Interactive TV, Multilingual User Interface, Channel Lock, Parental Lock, Channel Hide and Services Centre’s. Direct-to-Home (DTH) is piercing rural India in bigger measure as the share of pay-DTH has almost doubled in rural India. The share of pay-DTH amongst all DTH households has been 86% for urban compared to 64% for rural areas. If DTH TV compared with Cable TV; then DTH TV offers superior picture quality than Cable TV. As DTH is doing well but still 80% households are on Cable TV. The study discussed that if rural and urban areas were taken into consideration then rural areas are fetching more DTH services because of scarcity of infrastructure and wiring problems. Policy and Regulation, Lack of Exclusive Content, Cap on Foreign Investment, Cap on Cable Company/ Broadcaster Investment, The rule of “Must Carry”, Interoperability issues and Non-availability of Transponders were challenges faced by DTH industry. The study concluded that DTH operator should also take a thoughtful look at the substitutes and supplements. The ultimate winner cannot be a pure DTH player but a convergent player who deals all in one to the value-conscious, price sensitive Indian consumer. Girhotra Dheeraj (2012) studied on Indian DTH Industry: A Strategic Analysis by using Porter’s Five Forces Model to do industry analysis by analysing bargaining power of customers, threat of entrants, threat of substitutes, bargaining power of suppliers and competitive rivalry among firm within the industry. The author put light on the growth of DTH Industry and the opportunities for DTH players. The paper discussed on industry rivalry, industrial performance, access to distribution channels and challenges faced by the industry. The study examined that as the cable operators were facing problems because of less infrastructure so their shortcomings can create enormous opportunities for DTH players. People preferred to go for DTH if they have smart TV like LCD, LED, etc.; because of picture and sound quality of direct to home television. The paper discussed about various DTH players in the industry like Tata Sky, Videocon d2h,Reliance Digital TV, Airtel Digital TV, Sun Direct, Dish TV and DD Direct+. It concluded that the focus should be on providing value for money to the consumers with more brands in economy segment. Media Partners Asia (2014) prepared a report on Indian DTH Market Overview- Key Dynamics and Future Outlook 2014. MPA forecasts indicated that the active DTH subscriber base (i.e. paying customers only) will grow from 37 million in 2013 to 60 million by 2018, and 70 million in 2023. DTH operators had been working together to improve the overall economics for the business by reducing the amount of free viewing offered to new subscribers and recalculating the incentives dealers receive for renewing subscriptions. The key market trends going forward are rational focus, DTV mandate, HD penetration, Upside capped by tax and regulation and Consumer proposition, technology key to future subscriber additions. Srikanth and Pannaga (2013) studied on Customers Perception towards DTH Services with the objective to find the customer's preferences, attitude, perception and their problems cognate to DTH services. The primary data was collected with questionnaire and secondary data was collected from other sources like internet, journals, magazines, etc. The convenience random sampling was acclimated to select the sample of Mriyalguda. It was found that respondents mostly preferred Sun Direct DTH service. People had faced technical problems and had issues regarding signals.
With the digitization of cable services, cable operators need to carry only digitized signals. Cable operators will have to provide an STB to every subscriber, resulting in an upfront cost to the consumer. DTH players are leaving no stone unturned to attract consumers to switch from analog to digital DTH services. They have been gearing up on all counts ensuring enough number of STB’s in place, increasing workforce and training them for installation of STB’s and strengthening the back-end. This study will make significant contribution to DTH TV sector because the service players will get to know about the problems faced by the DTH users and the satisfaction level of consumers with grievance handling system of the DTH TV Service providers. With this information the companies can work upon the shortcomings and can make the consumers satisfied.
Research Methodology is a way to systematically solve a problem. It may be understood as a science of study where research is done scientifically. It includes various steps that are generally adopted by a researcher in studying his research problem. There are 6 districts which are taken under consideration to collect the data on the basis of urban-rural population of Punjab. The mostly urbanised districts are Ludhiana, Amritsar and Sahibzada Ajit Singh Nagar (S.A.S.Nagar) and mostly ruralised districts are Tarntaran, Shaheed Bhagat Singh Nagar (S.B.S.Nagar) and Hoshiarpur (Table.1 and Table.2).
Source: Census, 2011
Source: Census, 2011
The population of the study was the total population of Ludhiana, S.A.S.Nagar, Amritsar, Tarntaran, S.B.S.Nagar and Hoshiarpur. The sample was selected from this total population on the basis of Convenience Sampling. Convenience Sampling refers to a technique that goes for the sample that is available in the light of easy success (Bryman & Bell, 2007).The districts were selected on the basis of urban and rural population. Three top most urban and rural districts were selected for the sample. The top urbanised districts are Ludhiana, S.A.S.Nagar and Amritsar and the top rural districts are Tarntaran, S.B.S.Nagar and Hoshiarpur. The sample size was 750 which was divided among urban and rural respondents who are using DTH TV services or are DTH users. For Urban sample, 500 respondents were taken and for Rural sample, 250 respondents were taken(Table.3). The sampling unit was the Head of the Household. The head of household for census purposes is a person who is recognised as such by the household. She or he is generally the person who bears the chief responsibility for managing the affairs of the household and takes decision on behalf of the household. The head of household need not necessarily be the oldest male member or an earning member, but may be a female or a younger member of either sex. In case of an absentee de jure 'Head' who is not eligible to be enumerated in the household, the person on whom the responsibility of managing the affairs of household rests was to be regarded as the head irrespective whether the person is male or female (Census, 2011).
The urban sample was divided among three districts on the basis of their respective population (Table.4)
The rural sample was divided among three districts on the basis of their respective population (Table.5).
Data collection is the process of gathering and measuring information on variables of interest, in an established systematic fashion that enables one to answer stated research questions. Primary data and Secondary data was used in the study. Primary data was collected from respondents with the help of a structured Questionnaire. Secondary data was collected from different Journals, Newspapers, Published reports, Web sites, Books, etc. The data was collected with the help of two types of Questionnaires i.e. Urban Questionnaire and Rural Questionnaire. The data was collected with the help these structured questionnaires from their respective sample area.
Garrett’s ranking technique was used to rank the preference indicated by the respondents on different factors. As per this method, respondents have been asked to assign the rank for all factors and the outcomes of such ranking have been converted into score value with the help of the following formula:
Percent position = 100 (Rij – 0.5)
Rij = Rank given for the ith variable by jth respondents
Nj = Number of variable ranked by jth respondents
With the help of Garrett’s Table, the percent position estimated is converted into scores. Then for each factor, the scores of each individual are added and then total value of scores and mean values of score is calculated. The factor having highest mean value is considered to be the most important factor.
6.1 Grievance Handling Redressal System
The data was also gathered from the urban area regarding satisfaction from redressal system of the call centres of the DTH TV service companies. The data was analysed by using the descriptive statistics i.e. Frequency and Percentage. Table.6 shows the respondents’ views regarding the redressal system of call centres of DTH TV service companies.
Table.6 shows that 401(80.2%) respondents were satisfied with the redressal system of call centres regarding complaints and 99(19.8%) respondents were dissatisfied.408 (81.6%) respondents were satisfied with the 24*7 accessibility of DTH service provider while 92(18.4) were not satisfied. The facility of sufficient line and connection at call centre satisfied the 398 (79.6%) respondents but 102(20.4%) were dissatisfied from this facility. The availability of contact person and to resolve the queries by call centre satisfied 385 (80.8%) respondents but was not able to satisfy the other 115(23%). 404(80.8%) respondents were satisfied with the toll free number provided to consumers to make call to the call centre without any charges while 96(19.2%) were dissatisfied. The redressal which was made within 24 hours satisfied the 379(75.8%) respondents but was not able to satisfy the other 121(24.2%). So, it can be said that most of the respondents were satisfied with the 24*7 facility of the DTH TV service provider at call centres and most of the respondents were dissatisfied with the redressal which was not made within 24 hours.
Table.7 shows that 172(68.8%) respondents were satisfied with the redressal system of call centres regarding complaints and 78(31.2%) respondents were dissatisfied. 196 (78.4%) respondents were satisfied with the 24*7 accessibility of DTH service provider while 54(21.6) were not satisfied. The facility of sufficient line and connection at call centre satisfied the 156(62.4%) respondents but 94(37.6%) were dissatisfied from this facility. The availability of contact person and to resolve the queries by call centre satisfied 167 (66.8%) respondents but was not able to satisfy the other 83(33.2%). 136(54.4%) respondents were satisfied with the toll free number provided to consumers to make call to the call centre without any charges while 114(45.6%) were dissatisfied. The redressal which was made within 24 hours satisfied the 144(57.6%) respondents but was not able to satisfy the other 106(42.4%). So, it can be said that most of the respondents were satisfied with the 24*7 facility of the DTH TV service provider at call centres and most of the respondents were dissatisfied with the facility of toll free number provided to make call without any charges.
6.2 Problems encountered by the consumers with their DTH TV Service
Garrett Ranking Technique was used to rank the problems faced by consumers. Following are the problems about which customers were asked about; i.e. Signal Problems, Regional Problems, Price of Channels, Channel Freeze, Uninformed decisions, Lack of consumer awareness, Extra Channels, Weather Problems, Remote usage, Grievance handling.
Firstly, the frequencies were calculated of the ranks i.e. how many consumers ranked 1, 2, 3, 4, 5,6,7,8,9,10.
Table.8 FREQUENCIES OF RANKS
Following is the formula for calculation of percent position.
Percent position=100(Rij – 0.5)/Nj
Rij – 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10
Nj – 10
After applying formula of percent position, Table.9 shows the calculated percent positions of the ranks.
On the basis of percent positions of ranks, Garrett values were taken from the Garret Conversion Table (Table.10).
Next step is to multiply the frequencies of ranks with the Garret Values which were taken from the Garrett Conversion Table. The total is done of values obtained after the multiplication of ranks with Garrett values 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 of each problem. Table.11 shows the values after the multiplication.
Table.11 Multiplication of frequencies with Garrett Values
Next step was to find to calculate the average scores. In the Table.12, Average scores were calculated by dividing total of ranks with total number of customers who were facing problems. The number of consumers who had problems with their DTH service providers was 404. On the basis of average scores, ranks were allocated. The problem which had highest average score, were assigned Rank 1 and followed.
In the Table.12, the average scores of the problems is calculated, the total is divided by the number of respondents who were facing problems. There were 404 respondents who had some problems with DTH TV services. On the basis of Average scores, ranks were assigned to the problems. Signals problems had the highest average score, i.e. 62.31. So, Signals Problems were assigned Rank 1, which means that the maximum respondents had signal problems with DTH TV services. Rank 2 was assigned to Channel freeze with average score of 58.34. Channel freeze is the problem which freezes the running channel on television because of some technical disturbance in the signal. This problem was at second position which was faced by the customers. As DTH TV has the limitation of providing the uninterrupted services in bad weather, this problem is at Rank 3 with Average score of 56.76. Uninformed decisions, which were taken by the service providers by themselves without informing the customers regarding the channel packages, new channel addition to the package, deletion of channel from the package etc. this problem has got Rank 4 with Average Score of 53.96.The problem of Regional channels was at Rank 5 with the average score of 50.55, rural customers were facing this problem as some of the DTH TV service providers are not providing regional channels. Lacks of consumer awareness means consumers were not aware about the different packages, different DTH service providers, different value added services; even the awareness was not about customer care number, etc. This problems was ranked 6 having average score 49.37. Extra channels are those channels which the consumers were not interested in watching, but still the channels were included in the packages. There were some channels which were of different languages, or related to different regional areas; this created problem for the consumers. Extra channels problem had got Rank 7 with average score of 48.11.
The next problem which the DTH consumers were facing was of Price of channels. The consumers were having problems that DTH TV service providers were charging higher price of channels, if consumer wanted to add some channel to the package the price of that particular channel was high. Even the price of channel packages was also high for some consumers. This problem was ranked 8 with average score of 36.94. Rank 9 was given to problem of Grievance handling. The customer care service of DTH TV service providers was not able to satisfy the customers grievances, the attendants of customer’s calls was not providing desirable performance. Some were facing problem of not having customer care number. The average score of this problem was 32.81. The least problem which the consumers were facing in DTH TV services was of remote usage. The complications were there while the customers were operating remote; the customers want that there should be simplicity in operation of remote. The quality of the remote was also not good. So, this problem was placed at Rank 10 with average score of 31.89.
In urban area, 81.60% respondents were satisfied with the 24*7 accessibility of DTH service provider at call centre and 24.20% respondents were dissatisfied with the redressal which was not made by call centre within 24 hours. This dimension has got the highest percentage with respect to dissatisfaction. In rural area too, most of the respondents i.e. 78.4% were satisfied with 24*7 accessibility o DTH service provider at call centre and most of the respondents i.e. 114 (45.60%) were dissatisfied with toll free number provided to make call without any charges. Garrett Ranking Technique was applied to find the problems encountered by DTH TV services. The results revealed that the most important problem faced by DTH TV users was Signal problems (62.31%) followed by Channel freeze (58.34%), Weather Problems (56.76%), Uninformed decisions (53.96%), Regional channels (50.05%), Lack of Consumer Awareness(49.37%), Extra Channels (48.11%), Price of Channels (36.94%), Grievance Handling (32.81%) and the least problem faced by the consumer was of Remote Usage (31.89%). DTH TV service players should take into account these problems encountered by DTH users and should make the changes in their grievance handling redressal system so that consumers get satisfied and remain loyal to the company. This will help DTH companies to increase their market share and get new customers.
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