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Editorial Board A Refereed Monthly International Journal of Management
Prof. B. P. Sharma
(Editor in Chief)
Prof. Mahima Birla
(Editor)
Prof. Harshita Shrimali
(Consultative Editor)
Dr. Khushbu Agarwal
(Additional Editor)
Ms. Asha Galundia
(Circulation Manager)

 Editorial Team

Dr. Devendra Shrimali
Dr. Dharmesh Motwani
Mr. Jinendra Vyas
 

TITLE OF THE PAPER:

 

A STUDY ON THE PRODUCTIVE PARTICIPATION IN DIFFERENT SMALL SCREEN PROGRAMS BY THE VIEWERS OF GONDAR CITY, ETHIOPIA.

 

AUTHORS OF THE PAPER:

 

*DR K.VENUGOPAL

Professor

Department of Marketing Management,

College of Business and Economics,

University of Gondar, Ethiopia.                                                                             

 Mobile: +271941432528,

E-mail: KOPPALA71@GMAIL.COM

 

 

**ENDRIS NURU ZELEKE

Lecturer

Department of Marketing Management

College of Business and Economics

University of Gondar, Ethiopia.

Mobile +251913116450;

E- Mail:  endrisnuru@gmail.com

 

***DR MULUGETA NEGASH

Assistant Professor

Department of Marketing Management

College of Business and Economics

University of Gondar

Gondar, Ethiopia

Phone: +251 913781088

E mail: mulgeta2003@yahoo.com

 

 

**** WASSIE GETAHUN NIGATU                                                                                          

Research scholar, School of Management Studies,

Punjab University, Patiala

Lecturer,

Department of Marketing Management

College of Business and Economics

University of Gondar

Gondar, Ethiopia

 

 

A STUDY ON THE PRODUCTIVE PARTICIPATION IN DIFFERENT SMALL SCREEN PROGRAMS BY THE VIEWERS OF GONDAR CITY, ETHIOPIA, ETHIOPIA

*DR K.VENUGOPAL   **ENDRIS NURU ZELEKE   ***DR MULUGETA NEGASH   **** WASSIE GETAHUN NIGATU                                                                                          

ABSTRACT

Television idiomatically called as Idiot- Box, has grabbed a lot of attention by all categories of people both in terms of viewing the programmes and for the promotion of the brands. In every developed and some of developing countries the small screen industry persuades a lot of viewers and marketers with innumerable programmes in many languages.  Fortunate enough that the television is drawing the attention of many viewers with a lot of dexterous programmes in their respective countries and quite contrary to Ethiopian people from different categories in semi urban and rural areas found to be considerably  slipshod  towards watching small screen. Reasons for dawdling development show the discrepancy with their media habits, economic backgrounds, alternative entertainment forms and socio-cultural traits even captivating the shift rate from other entertaining modes to this media is also discouraging with less leverage. There are ample chances of revenue generation though advertisements, sponsorships and transmission by increasing the rate of watching  The small screen of Ethiopia owns certain good programmes associated with dramas and cinemas, reality shows, music and dances, discussions and interviews, news and  information, sports  etc.  Having fanaticism to attain the firm footing in the industry, the programs must be created in order to gain the positive outcomes of viewers by improving the frequency of watching,  evaluating the level of enjoyment, improving retrospection after the programme and handling complaints against the programmes. The major respondent groups identified in Gondar city, Ethiopia with respect to the intensity of their media habits were the students, job holders, households and farmers & labors who actively participated in the interviews and questionnaire.  The concentration on the programme production by milking certain elements such as creative work, conceptual quality, and technological association may lead to gain the attention of viewers paving the way to shift increase. This paper explains the relationship between participatory outcomes of selected famous programmes from four major categories of viewers with an empirical data analysis by using chi-square test.

Key words: Media habits, Participatory outcomes, Small screen, Programmes

 

INTRODUCTION:

Media provides us many functions at individual and societal level. Mass media have surveillance, interpretation, linkage, transmission of values and entertainment functions for the society ( Dominick 1999)

Media revolution across the globe has added further impetus to this by the growth of diverse, multi cultural and multi-lingual effects on media industry. Studies have revealed that Television, which once upon a time was the best option of reaching out to mass audience no more, attracts the same amount of viewers today (Hattungudi 2006). In every developed and some of developing countries, the small screen industry persuades a lot of viewers and marketers with innumerable programmes in many languages.  It is fortunate enough that the television is drawing the attention of many viewers with a lot of dexterous programmes in several countries for the figures of generating and the increase the revenue year by year is considerably significant. This may perhaps comes to us as different and contrary with reference to the same industry especially in Ethiopian as the people from different categories in semi urban and rural areas found to be considerably casual towards watching small screen because of they are pretty complacent with their own conventional interests.

The people of Ethiopia obtain the distinguished style of interests and habits emphasizing entertainment through parties, traditional clubs, sporting and also watching Television. With regard to the dawdling development of TV programmes, the reasons are expected to be the discrepancy with peoples’ media habits, economic backgrounds, alternative entertainment forms and socio-cultural traits.

 It is found that captivating the shift rate from other entertaining modes to TV programmes is also discouraging with less leverage. There are ample chances of revenue generation though advertisements, sponsorships and transmission by increasing the rate of watching. The small screen of Ethiopia owns certain good programmes associated with dramas and cinemas, reality shows, music and dances, discussions and interviews, news and information, sports etc.  Having fanaticism to attain the firm footing in the industry, the programs must be created in order to gain the positive outcomes of viewers by improving the frequency of watching, evaluating the level of enjoyment, improving retrospection after the programme and handling complaints against the programmes. The majority of programming is in Ethiopia’s most widely spoken language Amharic and the majority of programmes are made by ETV which has its own studios.

There have been many industries such as advertising agencies, picture production units, multimedia and animations etc are in connection with the development of TV programmes. The reputation of the programs would lead to the acceleration and leverage of the growth and profitability of dependant industries

A study on the small screen is found to be necessary for the emergence of modified structure of every program could have the maximum possibility of attracting the viewers and thereby increasing the level of the industry in the country. In order to evaluate the existing performance, the research study is made to explain the relationship between participatory outcomes of some existing famous programmes from four major categories of major viewers.

 

  1. OBJECTIVES:
  2. To study the structural traits of various programmes and its credibility in Ethiopian social media.
  3. To appraise participatory outcomes of different categories of people towards different programmes in TV.
  4. To offer suggestions for the improvement of the quality of programmes to accelerate the level of viewers’ involvement.

 

  1. METHODOLOGY MIX:
  • The survey was conducted to 200 Respondents from households in various places of Gondar City, Ethiopia with Non –Probability sampling specifically convenience  sampling technique checked reliability by Test- Retest Method
  • The Structured questionnaire was composed of 4 -point itemised scales with anchor verbal descriptions.
  • The collection of data consists of primary sources and secondary sources.
  • Selected through Multi - stage sampling process
  • Methods adopted for statistical data analysis amalgamated with the collected data were entered using SPSS-16 (Statistical Package for Social Sciences) software and STATISTICA.
  • Chi-square tests were carried out for testing the hypotheses, besides percentages.

 

  1. LITERATURE REVIEW

The major media institutions in Ethiopia have always been state owned. ERT  ( Ethiopian Radio and Television Industry) was established during Emperor Haile Selassie’s reign and dates back to 1935 on the radio side and 1964 on the Television side ( Brook 2000).There has been years that the development of broadcast media for  entertainment has had a snail walk.  Based on figures from the last census, there are probably between 1-2 million television sets and there are two channels being maintained by the government from which ETV1 transmits ads and covers about 47% of the population whereas ETV2 covers only the capital Addis Ababa. The programming schedule is built around new bulletins throughout the day and show around 16 hours programming a day.

The main revenue sources for the TV programmes are the sponsors and advertisers. Advertising is comparatively inexpensive at around 1,000 birr a minute. The main advertisers are some FMCG Companies and government organisations like the Anti-Corruption Agency. ETV has been able to buy some of the premium sports rights by attracting sponsors. ETV has made some progress in digitalizing its production processes and parts of its archive. For although the Government has declared that the development of the media is a priority, there is a shortage of professional people and resources. Furthermore, ETV as state media is very clearly tasked by the Government to help promote its policies and the implementation of its strategies and that does not always make for interesting viewing. But buying airtime is now no longer possible because of two factors. Firstly, inspired by the Government’s anti-corruption approach ETV is now commissioning programmes one year ahead and not allowing programme makers to share advertising income. Secondly, there is a new bill covering CSOs which says that only local organisations can address issues of rights. To be an Ethiopian NGO defined as local you must get 90% of your funding from Ethiopian sources. Programme makers have to bid to make programmes and this means this type of programming may no longer be aired.

Ø  Brief Presentation of the Present Media

As for the demand side, illiteracy, weak economy and the near non-existence of infrastructure prevent newspapers from reaching a mass readership, especially in rural areas, where newspapers cannot even be distributed. In this kind of situation, it is self-evident that radio and TV are important media. Radio is important because it is inexpensive and available for group listening. TV is important for the same reasons, and both broadcast mediums are especially useful because they don't require literacy. TV sets are scarce in the rural cities and almost absent in the villages and in the remote parts of the country. Radio sets are better distributed, but are still a luxury commodity for large segments of the Ethiopian population. Broadcast media may be able to fill in some of the educational gaps created by illiteracy and language difference (Russell Southwood 2009).

  • Implications of Media theories on the viewers of small screen programmes:
  • Thehypodermic needle model is a model of communications suggesting that an intended message is directly received and wholly accepted by the receiver (Davis, D.K. & Baron, S.J. 1981). Hence the expected outcome from this theory in related with the present study is Stimulus Vs response and through frequency of watching it could be evaluated.
  • TheTwo-step flow of communication model hypothesizes that ideas flow from mass media to opinion leaders, and from them to a wider population (Baran, Stanley 2011) will lead to the Discussions after watching the programme with the selective people available.
  • Multistep Flow Modelis also called as diffusion is the process by which an innovation is communicated through certain channels over a period time among the members of a social system (E.M .Rogers 1995). Diffusion of innovations attempted by the media will be directly influencing the viewers’ group to achieve the maximum level of enjoyment.
  • Uses and Gratifications Theory looks at what people do with media (its functions), positing that individuals actively choose the media they use and do so with specific goals in mind (Blumler & Katz, 1974) - Specificity in goals when not achieved as to their expectations will take the viewers to expose with Complaints against the program
  • Gerbner’s cultivation theory says that television has become the main source of storytelling in today's society.  Those who watch four or more hours a day are labeled heavy television viewers and those who view less than four hours per day, according to Gerbner are light viewers.  Level of Enjoyment can well be evaluated by the involvement in terms of the time spent will relate directly to the productive participation in the programmes.
  • The greatest contribution of agenda-setting theory above the other earlier theories would be how it models communication into a measurable process (Mccombs, M. 2004).The creation of what public thinks will be burst in terms of the positive and negative shades of the programme.
  • The spiral of silence is a term used by Noelle-Neumann to describe the reaction of people to openly visible approval or disapproval among the shifting patterns of public opinions and values (Jeffres, L., Neuendorf, K.A., Atkin, D. 1999). Frequency of watching certain programs will result into distinguished opinions

ANALYSIS AND RESULTS

The outcome of watching different programmes in the Television media by different viewers’ category respondents and their significance levels in choosing More, Less and Moderate at the outcome variables is presented in the above table.  The sample audience groups used to watch different programmes and respond in different outcomes such as (1) Frequency, (2) Level of Enjoyment, (3) Discussion after Watching and (4) complaints against the program.  The outcome by different viewer category is found vary from program to program. The analysis of their response regarding these is presented in the above table and the discussion is carried out here under.

 

 

Table- 1:  Outcome of watching different programmes by different category of viewer respondents

 

Variables of program

OUTCOME- à

viewer  category

 

No.

Frequency of watching

Level of Enjoyment

Discussion after watching

Complaints against program

More

Less

Moderate

More

Less

Moderate

More

Less

Moderate

More

Less

Moderate

Sports

Students

77

34

33

10

45

32

0

0

77

0

18

59

0

Job holders

38

20

10

8

15

13

10

9

28

1

9

24

5

House holds

29

8

9

12

12

12

5

10

15

4

10

14

5

Farmers & Labors

56

21

23

12

18

28

10

9

46

1

9

40

7

Chi-square

 

13.30*

24.10**

42.54**

16.72*

Drama & cinema

Students

77

27

25

25

39

38

0

60

17

0

13

64

0

Job holders

38

15

17

6

10

24

4

29

8

1

10

25

3

House holds

29

11

8

10

12

17

0

16

8

5

3

22

4

Farmers & Labors

56

25

16

15

15

38

3

24

28

4

10

39

7

Chi-square

 

5.99

22.75**

30.84**

13.54*

Discussions & interviews

Students

77

37

23

17

36

41

0

10

66

1

18

59

0

Job holders

38

16

11

11

13

20

5

21

17

0

11

22

5

House holds

29

13

10

6

9

15

5

15

8

6

7

17

5

Farmers & Labors

56

24

20

12

21

28

7

34

21

1

14

41

1

Chi-square

 

1.54

13.12*

67.67**

19.19**

Dance & Music

Students

77

47

30

0

25

52

0

42

35

0

11

66

0

Job holders

38

13

16

9

5

23

10

20

12

6

2

26

10

House holds

29

8

14

7

7

10

12

10

11

8

2

16

11

Farmers & Labors

56

17

28

11

19

19

18

19

27

10

10

29

17

Chi-square

 

28.66**

40.64**

28.54**

35.14**

News & Information

Students

77

8

24

45

19

58

0

24

53

0

10

67

0

Job holders

38

2

12

24

6

25

7

4

21

13

8

25

5

House holds

29

2

7

20

4

18

7

5

13

11

10

12

7

Farmers & Labors

56

9

28

19

11

35

10

9

32

15

7

32

17

Chi-square

 

14.20*

18.48**

34.75**

37.64**

 

 

 

 

SPORTS

Regarding the frequency of watching of Sports, out of the total Students respondents, majority group (34) said they watch more and a least number (10) said they watch moderate. From the total Job holders respondents a major group (20) said that they watch more and a minimum numbers (10) and (8) expressed both less and moderate respectively. Whereas, a majority group of Households (12) said they watch more and a major group of Farmers and Labors reported that they watch the sports program less. The calculated chi-square value is 13.30 found significant at 0.05 level because it is more than the table value (12.6). Therefore, the analysis shows that there is a significant difference in the frequency of watching sports program by different viewer categories. Hence the hypothesis is accepted.

Regarding the Level of enjoyment from Sports program, out of the total Student respondents, majority group (45) said they enjoy more and the remaining (32) said they enjoy less and no one reported moderate. From the total Job holder respondents, a major group (15) said that they enjoy sports more and a minimum number (10) expressed both less and moderate. Whereas, a majority group of Farmers and labors (28) said they enjoy less and a significant number of Households (12) said that they enjoy more and the same number expressed that they enjoy less. The calculated chi-square value is 24.10 found significant at 0.01 level because it is more than the table value (16.8). Therefore, the analysis shows that there is a significant difference in the level of enjoyment while watching sports program by different viewer categories. Hence the hypothesis is accepted.

The response of the viewer groups regarding watching Sports on the outcome of retrospection through discussions after watching the program, out of the total Student respondents, cent percent (77) said that they would discuss about the program less. From the total Job holders, Households and farmer & labor respondents a major group (28, 15 and 46) said that they would also discuss the programme less. The calculated chi-square value is 42.54 found significant at 0.01 level because it is more than the table value (16.8). Therefore, the analysis shows that there is a significant difference in the retrospection of sports program by different viewer categories. Hence the hypothesis is accepted.

As regards watching Sports the outcome of criticism and complaints, majority group of respondents from selected four types of viewer categories said that they have less complaints against sports programme but a significant number of respondents from Job holders (9) and Households (10) category viewers said that they have more complaints. The calculated chi-square value is 16.72 found significant at 0.05 level because it is more than the table value (12.6). Therefore, the analysis shows that there is a significant difference in the intensity of complaints against Sports program by different viewer categories. Hence, the hypothesis is accepted.

 

 

DRAMA AND CENEMA

Regarding the programs related to Drama and Cinema, out of the total respondents, a major group of Students (27), Households (11) and Farmers & Labors (25) said that their frequency of watching is more, whereas, majority group of respondents from Job holders (17) said they watch less.. The calculated chi-square value is 5.99 found no significant because it is less than the table value (12.6). Therefore, the analysis shows that there is no significant difference in the frequency of watching Drama and Cinema programs by different viewer categories. Hence the hypothesis is rejected.

Concerning to the next outcome of Enjoyment level while watching Drama & Cinema, out of the total four types of tribe categories, majority group of respondents from Job holders (24), Households (17) and Farmers & Labors (38) said that they enjoy the program more whereas, a little majority group of Student respondents (39) expressed the more enjoyment from the program. The calculated chi-square value is 22.75 found significant at 0.01 level because it is more than the table value (16.8). Therefore, the analysis indicates that there is a significant difference in the Level of enjoyment while watching Drama and Cinema by different viewer categories. Hence the hypothesis is accepted.

The response of the sample viewer groups regarding the retrospection through discussion after watching Drama & Cinema, out of the total respondents, majority group of Students (60), Job holders (29) and Households (16) said that they discuss more about the program. Whereas, a dominant group of respondents from Farmers & Labors Community said that they discuss less about the same. Hence, the calculated chi-square value is 30.87 found significant at 0.01 level because it is more than the table value (16.8). Therefore, the analysis shows that there is a significant difference in the retrospection of Drama and Cinema program by different viewer categories. Hence the Hypothesis is accepted.

Regarding the Drama & Cinema program, the outcome of complaints from a majority group of respondents from selected four types of viewer categories said that they have less complaints but a significant number of respondents from Job holders (10) and Farmers & Labors (10) category viewers said that they have more complaints. The calculated chi-square value is 13.54 found significant at 0.05 level because it is more than the table value (12.6). Therefore, the analysis shows that there is a significant difference in the complaints against Drama and Cinema by different viewer categories. Hence, the hypothesis is accepted.

DISCUSSIONS AND INTERVIEWS

Regarding the next program variable Discussions and Interviews and its frequency of watching, out of the total respondents, a major group from all the above four types of viewer categories said that they watch more, whereas, a considerable number of respondents from above four categories of viewers said they also watch with less frequency. The calculated chi-square value is 1.54 found no significant because it is less than the table value (12.6). Therefore, the analysis shows that there is no significant difference in the Frequency of watching Discussions and Interviews by different viewer categories.  Hence, the hypothesis is rejected.

The Level of enjoyment while watching Discussions and Interviews , out of the total four types of viewer categories, majority group of respondents from Students (41), Job holders(20), Households (15) and Farmers & Labors (28) said that they enjoy less, whereas, a significant number of respondents from Students (36), Job holders (13) and Farmers & Labors (21) expressed their enjoyment more. The calculated chi-square value is 13.12 found significant at 0.05 level because it is more than the table value (12.6). Therefore, the analysis indicates that there is a significant difference in the Level of Enjoyment while watching Discussions and Interviews by different viewer categories. Hence, the hypothesis is accepted.

The next outcome retrospection with reference to the program named Discussions and Interviews, out of the total respondents, majority group of Students viewer category (66) said that would recall less but a dominant group of respondents from Job holders, Households and Farmers & Labors community respondents said that they would discuss less after watching the program. Therefore, the calculated chi-square value is 67.67 found highly significant because it is more than the table value (16.8). Therefore, the analysis shows that there is a significant difference in the retrospection of Discussions and Interviews by different viewer categories. Hence, the hypothesis is accepted.

as regards to the complaints against the program associated with Discussions and Interviews, majority group of respondents from selected four types of viewer categories said that they have less complaints on the program, but a significant number of respondents from Job holders (11) and Farmers & Labors (14) category viewers said that they have more complaints . The calculated chi-square value is 19.19 found significant at 0.01 level because it is more than the table value (16.8). Therefore, the analysis shows that there is a significant difference in the intensity of complaints against Discussions and Interviews by different viewer categories. Hence, the hypothesis is accepted.

DANCE AND MUSIC

Regarding the Frequency of watching Dance and Music, out of the total respondents, a major group of respondents from Students (47) said that they would watch more but the remaining three tribe categories Job holders (16), Households (14) and Farmers & Labors (28) said that they would watch with less frequency. The calculated chi-square value is 28.66 found significant at 0.01 level because it is more than the table value (16.8). Therefore, the analysis indicates that there is a significant difference in the frequency of watching Dance and Music by different Viewer categories. Hence, the hypothesis is accepted.

The level of enjoyment while watching Dance and Music, out of the total four types of viewer categories, majority group of respondents from Students (52) and Job holders (23) supposed that they enjoy less, whereas a major group of Households (12) expressed that they enjoy moderately and   a dominated group of respondents from Farmers & Labors (19) said that they enjoy more and the same category responded (18) that they enjoy moderately. The calculated chi-square value is 40.64 found significant at 0.01 level because it is more than the table value (16.8). Therefore, the analysis indicates that there is a significant difference in the level of enjoyment while watching Dance and Music by different viewer categories. Hence, the hypothesis is accepted.

The response of the sample viewer groups concerning to the outcome of retrospection after watching Dance and Music programs, out of the total respondents, majority group of Students (42) and Job holders (20) viewers category said that they recall the program more but a dominant group of respondents from Households and Farmers & Labors community respondents said that they have less intention of discussing after watching the program. The calculated chi-square value is 28.54 found highly significant because it is more than the table value (16.8). Therefore, the analysis shows that there is a significant difference in the retrospection of Dance and Music programs by different viewer categories. Hence, the hypothesis is accepted.

Regarding the complaints against Dance and Music programs, majority group of respondents from selected four types of viewer categories said that they have less complaints but a significant number of respondents from Students (11) and Farmers & Labors (10) category viewers said that they have more complaints. The calculated chi-square value is 35.14 found significant at 0.01 level because it is more than the table value (16.8). Therefore, the analysis shows that there is significant difference in complaints against Dance and Music programs by different viewer categories. Hence, the hypothesis is accepted.

NEWS AND INFORMATION

Regarding the Frequency of watching News and Information, out of the total respondents, a major group of respondents from Students (45), Job holders (24) and Households (20) said that they were moderate enough in the frequency, but a dominated group of Job holders (28) viewer categories also stated that they watch less comparatively. The calculated chi-square value is 14.20 found significant at 0.05 level because it is more than the table value (12.6). Therefore, the analysis indicates that there is a significant difference in the Frequency of watching News and Information different viewer categories. Hence, the hypothesis is accepted.

The Level of enjoyment while watching News and Information, out of the total four types of viewer categories, majority group of respondents from all the four categories said that enjoy less, whereas a significant number of respondents from Students (19) and Farmers and Labors (11) have told that they enjoy more watching the program. The calculated chi-square value is 18.48 found significant at 0.01 level because it is more than the table value (16.8). Therefore, the analysis indicates that there is a significant difference in the Level of Enjoyment in watching News and Information by different viewer categories. Hence, the hypothesis is accepted.

The response of the sample viewer groups regarding retrospection about the program of News and Information out of the total respondents, majority group of viewers from all the above four category said that they recollect less through discussions after watching the program but a considerable group of respondents from Student community said that they recall somewhat more .The calculated chi-square value is 34.75 found highly significant because it is more than the table value (16.8). Therefore, the analysis shows that there is a significant difference in the retrospection about the program of News and Information by different viewer categories. Hence, the hypothesis is accepted.

Regarding the complaints against the program containing News and Information, majority group of respondents from selected four types of viewer categories said that they have less complaints, but a significant number of respondents from Farmers and Labors (17) category viewers said that they have moderate intensity of complaints. The calculated chi-square value is 37.64 found significant at 0.01 level because it is more than the table value (16.8). Therefore, the analysis shows that there is a significant difference in the intensity of complaints against News and Information related programs by different viewer categories.  Hence, the hypothesis is accepted.

CONCLUSIONS

As the need for the Creative work, Conceptual quality and Technological update especially in the production and transmission of the programmes will definitely lead to increase the shift of entertainment mode towards TV. Marketing insights mediated by the content development of the programme should be focused flanking a depth research on the various kinds and formats needed by the viewers. The success of many advertisers has witnessed the implementation of the DAGMAR (Defining Advertising Goals Measuring Advertising Results) approach and the same approach could be used for the Programs redesigned as DPGMPR (Defining Programme Goals Measuring Programme Results). Strategic view on the service delivery may improve the outcome of the programme in association with technology and expertise personnel. Competitiveness is one of the reasons for the improvement of the quality of any service product and creating the same through encouraging more private players by ministry of Information would be an advantage to the industry. An immense increase in volume of subscription can have all chances of increasing revenue and profits where the fee structure is quite inconvenient for all segments of the viewers which may be eased. Segmentation of viewers in terms of their media habits and productive participation should impressively be considered and activities fittest to certain strategies should be formed and implemented.

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  • http://www.pressreference.com/Co-Fa/Ethiopia.html

 

 

 

 

 

 
 

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