Diversity Management - A Blend of Literature
Department of Management Studies
School of Management
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Dr. R. Prabhakara Raya
Department of Management Studies
School of Management
Diversity Management - A Blend of Literature
Diversity Management (DM) has been observed in various dimensions. Diversity as
an expression is being used in every sector, whether; it may be political, social,
educational or corporate to encourage an environment of inclusiveness. In this interconnected
world, diversity has become the norm-not exception for organizations and acts as
a driving force to grow and sustain in the competitive global marketplace. Most
of the fast growing organizations today require constant creativity and innovation
combined with a continuous learning process. The observed
existence of diversity highlights the necessity for managing it effectively, hence
Diversity Management (DM). Government of each and every countries have
put up rules and regulations ensuring that people are taken into account based on
diversity, likewise Indian government have also levied number of rules mandatory
for the organizations to follow. Few of them may be equal pay for both gender in
the working section of the society irrespective of caste, creed; proper recruitment
system following quota system for under-privileged group of society. Though a deeper
insight is required in the Indian context on the concept of DM there has been a
sprinkling attention on DM. In this paper, the genesis of diversity management as
a management concept has been brought about along with the various dimensions of
workforce diversity. Basically it is an attempt to present the blend of literatures
pertaining to importance of diversity management practices in organizations. Along
with it the kind of impact DM has on organizational performance is being highlighted.
Implications of DM are further discussed followed by discussions and conclusions.
Keywords: Diversity, diversity management, organizational performance.
“Diversity: the art of thinking independently together.”- Malcolm Stevenson
Increasing globalization has enhanced the necessity for managing a diverse workforce.
It has made people from diverse backgrounds to interact with each other more than
ever before. Today, there is a possibility for global population to assemble and
work in a single domain. Hence, diversity is increasingly becoming a hot issue in
political, legal, corporate and educational arenas. Government as well as private
organizations consider this as an important issue. Thus, the necessity of diversity
management came into picture.
Diversity is ubiquitous. It is a complex phenomenon for an organization with which
it has to deal. Organizations’ ability to deal, accept and celebrate the uniqueness
of each and every individual is a big question mark when it comes to managing a
diverse population. Fast forward mode of doing work, target of high level of achievements
demands creativity and innovation. Diversity management (DM) as a strategy is presently
being adopted by organizations as one of the major tool for attaining a competitive
edge. Recognition of the value of diverse workforce has made organizations adopt
a strategic people management technique for enhancing organizational competitiveness.
This review is an attempt to understand the various aspects of diversity management
in the Indian context. Literatures have been reviewed on DM and its impact on organizations
to better understand the concept of DM. As far as this review is concern, ample
of research both empirical and conceptual is available from the United States. Researchers
have explored much in the European terrain. But very few researches are done in
the Asian countries and more specifically in India except for few (Cooke & Saini,
2010; Paelmke & Erwee, 2008). The presence of so little research in the Indian
organizational setup signifies the necessity to go on for a rigorous involvement
of researchers to study how diversity has an impact in the Indian organizations
with reference to performance. Differences may exist in the diversity scenario in
the western countries organization from that of Indian organization. Henceforth,
reconsideration of factors or dimension is necessary so that it adds value to the
area of study.
Researches has also been conducted on various dimensions of DM that investigated
DM practices at the individual level, at the group/team level, at the organizational
level; DM and work-group performance; diversity and inclusion. Various techniques
like case studies, surveys, experimental, longitudinal studies have been used to
study the diversity factors and its implications on performance. In this review
we will concentrate basically on DM and the individual performance which will in
turn lead to organizational performance positively. Firstly, the concept of diversity
and DM is defined for further clarity. Secondly, the genesis of DM as a management
concept is given. Thirdly, the various variables of diversity attributed as surface
level and deep level diversity which has an implication on performance is put forward.
Fourthly, the relationship between diversity and performance of an organization
as a whole has been viewed by means of literature review followed by discussions
Diversity and Diversity Management defined:
The term diversity basically refers to the differences that exist between individuals
thereby making each and every individual unique in terms of age, gender, religion,
personality, ethnicity, culture and national origin as well as deeper aspects of
individuals like attitudes, values, behaviors (Kossek, Lobel, & Brown, 2005;
Shaw & Barrett-Power, 1998; DeLuca & McDowell, 1992; Rosen & Lovelace,
1991). Hence, it encompasses all the aspects of an individual whether tangible or
Each and every individual differs from one another with respect to some tangible
attributes like age, gender, disabilities, culture etc. All this aspects are un-changeable.
However, there are also some attributes which are changeable of an individual like
attitudes, desires, personality, work behavior etc. These changeable attributes
of an individual are the main concern of an organization. An organization can grasp
these changeable attributes of the individuals and convert them into elements that
will benefit the organization. Nevertheless, the effects of the unchangeable attributes
cannot be underestimated. To get hold of the diverse qualities which an individual
brings along with himself/herself to the organization, management must be competent
as well as eager. Much of the implementation can be done only if the management
of the organization is interested and takes active part towards its implementation.
Literature reveals that in a long run the deep-level diversities or intangible attributes
of individuals has a greater impact on performance, whereas the impact of surface-level
or tangible attributes of individual tends to diminish and becomes negligible with
time. Hence, it is necessary to take care of surface-level diversity at the entry
level and in the long run deal with the deep-level diversities.
Researches argue that different dimensions of diversity either tangible or intangible,
has an impact on the overall performance of the organization. As such it becomes
a necessity for the organization to take into account the individual diversity in
any form for that matter and tackle with it with the help of well defined and well
established rules, regulations and strategies. This fact signifies that managing
a diverse workforce requires an organization to adopt strategies and policies which
will lead to organizational effectiveness.
DM is a strategy to promote the perception, acknowledgement and implementation of
diversity in organizations and institutions. It includes acceptance and respect
whereby accepting that every individual is unique and different from each other
(Lumadi, 2011). It is a tool for an organization whereby the organization tries
to create an environment where every individual irrespective of age, gender, color,
personalities, attitudes etc. are invited and valued. It provides a comfortable
atmosphere which is conducive for creativity and innovation along with career development
for the individual employee and a competitive advantage for the organization. DM,
thus, is a call for organizations to recognize the uniqueness of each & every
individual thereby making the utmost utilization of the available personnel to create
a sustainable competitive advantage for the organization.
Genesis of Diversity Management as a Management Concept:
The concept of ‘diversity management’ originated in the U.S. and the term entered
the management conversation with the 1987 Hudson Institute Report, “Workforce 2000”,
which stated that women, blacks, Hispanics and immigrants would make up 85 percent
of new job seekers by the year 2000 (Lorbiecki & Jack, 2000; Jonhston &
Packer, 1987). During the 1990s, DM was introduced
in the U.S.A., the U.K. apart from still more other countries, with the goal of:
Increasing the rates of participation of women and ethnic minorities, improving
career prospects for these people, incorporating wider perspectives into the decision-making
processes and helping organizations reach new, and formerly untapped, markets (Lorbiecki
& Jack, 2000).
But even before diversity came into picture in management, it was already termed
illegal by the 1964 Civil Rights Acts to discriminate employees on the basis of
race, color, and the subsequent Executive Order 11246 led to the founding of the
Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC), thus beginning equity/affirmative
action conversation (Herring, 2009). Apparently, by late 1970s and 1980s private
companies are seen to realize that they have to go beyond the legal mandates in
order to effectively manage diversity with valuing diversity as its aim (Herring,
2009). Hence, DM emerged as the management concept which of course was like a dawn
for the unprivileged group.
When we look into the Indian economy; a massive change or reform took place in 1991
with the Liberalization, Privatization and Globalization or so called LPG policy.
It was a landmark step inviting foreign investment, opportunities to trade overseas
etc. As the waves of globalization swept the organizations, a platform was formed
where workforce from diverse countries, cultures, values, styles, backgrounds were
able to come together presenting opportunities as well as challenges for the organization.
Hence, the issue of DM. Organizations sensed the need to construct an environment
that accepts differences, value equality, presenting a favorable place to work in.
Now it’s been almost two decades that diversity has been an issue of concern in
organizations and also the realization that diversity can be a way for achieving
great heights. As such, a diverse workforce or a heterogeneous workforce has become
an essential criterion to deal with, to bring about organizational effectiveness.
Researchers have found that diversity can improve organizational effectiveness and
organizations that are reputed in managing diversity effectively are more likely
to attract a pool of best personnel (Carrell, Elbert & Hatfield, 2000).
Diversity Management variables:
Diversity variables can be classified into surface-level and deep-level. A clear
understanding of the factors/variables of diversity which has an impact on performance
of individuals and organization as a whole is drawn from this part of review. Another
part of review on variables about diversity consists of the variables which contribute
towards organizational performance.
Surface-Level Diversity (Tangible) -
Surface level diversities are said to be those differences which are present in
individuals and are easily noticeable depending on which we tend to segregate an
individual from another.
- Gender issue has always been a great area of concern. In western countries discrimination
has prevailed in organizations regarding employment opportunities, growth opportunities
towards women section of the society. Even though attempts have been put forward
towards the removing of such practices, actual scenario tells a different story.
Even after years of introducing the Equal Opportunity Legislation, gender issue
is still a very tricky and problematic issue and a major topic of concern. Differences
in terms of gender have been found to have a positive relationship with interpersonal
deviance (Liao, Joshi & Chuang; 2004). On the contrary, a negative relationship
has also been found between gender and alliance team effectiveness (Zoogah, Vora,
Richard & Peng, 2011). Hence it can be said that gender can have both negative
and positive effect on organizational effectiveness depending upon the circumstances
under which it is being considered. In India, when we look into managing diversity,
it is more of bringing about gender diversity. It concerns equal opportunities for
both men and women section of the society, equal treatment in front of law, equal
wage/salary for equal kind of job. Organizations are into giving equal chance on
the basis of merit irrespective of kind. Today, female are seen to be given a chance
in organizations to a great extent.
- Age or generational diversity has a great impact on the work performance of the
organizations. It has been said that workforce today has become very diverse not
only in the area of gender, racial-ethnicity, cultures and work style but also in
terms of age. Workforce today consists of four generations i.e. Traditionalists,
Baby boomers, Generation X and Millenials/Generation Y; however, with a few from
the group of traditionalists considering their age from the time they were born.
But the fact remains that it still provides immense
challenge as well as unique opportunity for the organizations. Generational differences
will have issues with respect to communication, technology, preferences, workplace
expectations, compensation etc. (Kapoor & Solomon, 2011; Haeberle, Herzberg,
& Hobbs, 2009).
Traditionalists are those who are generally born between
1925-1945, who believe in institutions and are loyal to the parent organization
(Kapoor & Solomon, 2011; Simons, 2009; Spiro,
2006). Baby boomers are those who are born between 1946-1964, who tend to
be more goal oriented, hard working, committed towards the employer with due concern
towards the salary being paid (Kapoor & Solomon, 2011; Brazeel, 2009;
Spiro, 2006). Generation X or Gen Xers are those who are generally
born between 1965-1980 and are considered as completely different from the other
two generations. This group of individuals focuses more on work-life balance with
little or no interest in being associated with the same organization forever (Kapoor
& Solomon, 2011; Wendover, 2009; Simons, 2009). Generational Y or Millenials
or Echo Boomers are those who are born between 1980-1999, who have great
energy, drive, and skills. These groups of individuals are technology savvy; connected
globally by means of email, text messages and social websites preferring to work
in teams and seek to involve in creative activities (Kapoor & Solomon, 2011;
Spiro 2006; Brazeel, 2009).
Haeberle et al. (2009, p.64) argue that “today’s age-diverse
work force expands the definition of diversity and employers who develop leadership
strategies that appeal to an age-diverse population will gain a competitive edge”
(Kapoor & Solomon, 2011). On the contrary, the presence of diversity can also
create negative impact if this difference is not recognized and necessary steps
are not taken to handle them accordingly. Differences in interactions, working style,
communication style between different age group/generation will generate a problem
for team development and cohesion (Yeager, Nafukho & Fredrick, 2012; Gursoy,
Maier & Chi, 2008)
Culture - Culture can be defined
as the webs of significance we spin as human beings: who are and how we interact
with the world is an intriguing interaction of language, values, beliefs and behaviors
that pervade every aspect of a person’s life, while continually changing and evolving
(Ginsberg, 2005). Culture is a part of ethnicity. Ethnic refers to being related
to different race of people. Each and every individual in an organization can be
related to a different social background, with different values of its own which
they follow. Ethnic issues are very delicate and it needs to be dealt in a very
proper manner. Ethnically diverse team has been found to be performing much better
than a non diverse team on a team project (Watson, Johnson & Zgourides; 2002).
Cultural diversity is the differences between individuals with regard to the cultural
background. Culture had been broadly studied in diversity management. Studies show
that organizations have recognized the importance of culture towards attaining efficiency
in work environment. Culture inhibits the full structure of an individual in terms
of his family background, the society from where one comes, the habits etc. Cultural
diversity is considered in almost every literature for studying its impact on performance.
For example, Marwari people are considered to be very good in business, accounting;
Bengali people are considered to be very astute and sharp so on and so forth. In
a global scenario, cultural diversity plays a very crucial role in sustaining in
a global environment. In-order to function successfully in a different region, country
or continent, organization has to take care of the cultural differences that exist.
For example; the work culture prevalent in U.S may be completely different from
that of China.
Nationality - Individuals are also
segregated based on their nationality by which individuals are categorized to be
of different nation or country. Nationality is termed important for those companies
or organizations that employ foreign nationalities or immigrants as well as those
multinational companies (MNC's) that have got subsidiary companies in a foreign
land. Nationality is thought to be related to team performance (Bell, Villado, Lukasik,
Belau & Briggs, 2011; Kilduff, Angelmar & Mehra, 2000). Nationality has
been studied in different forms in diversity management. Zoogah et. al., (2011)
found that nationality along with gender has a negative relationship with alliance
Race/Caste - Race is one of the
base for the existence of DM. It made conscious effort to deal with racism and bring
equality among the people in every setup, whether it may be government or private
kind of establishment. Racism may be, keeping a group of people out of employment
opportunities, neglecting a particular group of people just because they belong
to the said race, meaning injustice. Recruitment is one area where bias prevails
depending upon race or caste. Managing race diversity is one of the big challenges
which organizations face. A focus on the racial differences is necessary to bring
forth the challenges associated with it and henceforth direct the diversity efforts
to manage it positively. This approach to racial initiatives reflects the integration
and learning perspective of diversity (Matton & Hernandez, 2004). In India,
caste system still holds a strong fold on organizations. Though government legislations
have removed caste system, and laws regarding equal employment have come up, still
the root is intact. Efforts are still required to remove the root cause. Caste discrimination
is a great hindrance for individuals working in organizations to build him/her and
also for the groups to work in unison for achieving the organizational goals and
excel in it. In the long run, no one but the organization is the loser in losing
such talents which the individual holds.
Religion is a very important factor which is part and partial
of an individual. Religion is a very sensitive issue for any individual and in-fact
it plays a vital role in stereotype, the way a person looks at the other person.
Religious differences go hand in hand with other forms of diversity thereby affecting
almost every aspects of reality bringing tensions among individuals with different
religious belief system (Gebert, Boerner & Chatterjee, 2011; Beyer, 2003). Religious
diversity does not merely lead to different thought worlds in organizations but
to different world views (Gebert et al. 2011). Given the diverging political and
cultural preferences coming along with diverse religious denominations, religious
differences may result in value diversity (Gebert et al., 2011). A harmonious relation
between different religious beliefs will facilitate organizational coordination
and cooperation for everyone involved (Gebert et al., 2011). The problem is not
with the presence of religious diversity but religious tolerance which affects organizational
performance (Gebert et al., 2011).
Deep-Level Diversity (Intangible):
Deep-level diversities are those which are present in the individuals
but are not easily identifiable. Effort if directed appropriately can change deep-level
diversities, as per the needs concerned by the organization.
- Educational background refers to the qualification attained by an individual in
his/her academic career. Educational diversity is very crucial for any organization
for effective functioning of the activities towards organizational performance.
An organization has individual coming from different educational background which
is a blessing for the organization. Increased educational background diversity is
argued to be important as it provides a scope for task- relevant knowledge to be
applied to the task. When considering performance criteria as creativity or innovation,
educational background will contribute to performance.
Attitudes - Attitude of an individual
is inborn but possibility is there, it can be changed if efforts are directed towards
it. Attitude of an individual towards the other person shows whether that person
considers the other as different from himself. An individual’s attitude towards
others who are perceived as different from themselves can be improved through extended
contact (Yeager & Nafukho, 2012). In an organization, attitudes of the employees
towards, its coworkers; towards subordinates; towards superior; affects the working
environment and ultimately individual performance, team performance and thus, the
organizational performance. Hence, it becomes the responsibility of the organization
that effort is directed towards handling the attitude of the individuals in such
a way that it brings positive outcome.
Personality - Personality is a
total of how an individual is with all his character, traits, attitude approach
etc. Teams/Organizations comprising diverse personality types will perform more
effectively (Pollock, 2009). Studies have suggested that personality based diversity
can have a great impact on outcomes such as social integration and performance at
the team level of analysis (Liao et al., 2004; Harrison, Price, Gavin & Florey;
Effects of Diversity Management on Organization:
Organization gets affected
by the very presence of diversity of its human resource. DM acts as a tool implemented
by management to help in harmonizing a situation which otherwise would have hinder
Coordination - Coordination means bringing
together or harmonizing. Coordination acts as a basis for carrying out the task
in a group or team which is heterogeneous in nature. The relationship between coordination
and team effectiveness is essential in a diverse team as it requires coordination
among the members for better performance (Zoogah et al., 2011). Empirical research
supports the fact that coordination is positively related to team effectiveness
where there can be easy transfer from one task to another ensuring positive outcomes
(Zoogah et al., 2011; Stout et al., 1994; Morgan, Glickman, Woodard, Blaiwes &
- Employee satisfaction is always an agenda of the human resource management. Satisfying
employee means to make the employees content with the organization in any manner,
be it with salary, working environment, opportunities for growth so on and so forth.
Diversity management is one such factor by which organization can satisfy the employees
by making them feel at home. Satisfaction with coworkers is a factor which defines
a positive or negative attitude towards coworkers. Lack of satisfaction may lead
to aggression, verbal abuse and stealing from coworkers (Liao et al, 2004). Literature
supports the fact that employee satisfaction depends on the individual's expectations,
his personal values, as well as the physical and psychological demands associated
with work. The more complicated the type of the work, intellectually challenged,
team work with equivalent level of wage are more liable to have significant impact
on the level of employee satisfaction (Wu & Chiang, 2007; Clarke, 1995; Stone,
Commitment - Commitment is a stage
where employees dedicate themselves for the betterment of the organization. It refers
to the strength by which a member identifies himself with and involves towards the
attainment of organizational goals. Diversity management helps in increasing the
commitment level as it helps in making them feel included in the organization. Commitment
is found to be closely linked to organizational performance (Gonzalez & Denisi,
2009; Dutton, Dukerich & Harquail, 1994; Mowday, Porter & Steers, 1982).
Creativity/Innovation - Creativity or innovation describes a
situation in which individuals comes up with new ideas, prospects, ways of doing
things, a unique way which has not been thought before, done before. Presence of
diverse individuals with difference in personalities, attitudes, values, knowledge
can foster an environment of talent pouring; only thing the organization has to
do is to harness it in the best possible manner. Diversity promotes integrative
insights, creativity, and innovation thereby improving performance (Harrison &
Klein, 2007). Diversity of team roles in teams is important, as it clarifies responsibilities,
creates innovation, and provides clear understanding of the tasks and team goals
(Pollock, 2009). Exposure to divergent and potentially valuable perception can lead
to more creative and innovative ideas and insights (van knippenberg et. al., 2004).
Fact also stands that performance innovation may be positively associated with individual
education and gender (Yeager & Nafukho, 2012).
Problems are a part of managing an organization. How you deal with it is the deciding
factor for the organization in being successful. Diversity can benefit organizations
by providing an expansive range of ideas, skills, and insights that can widen organizational
capabilities to solve problems and help in making better decisions (Choi & Rainey,
2010; Cox 1993; Cox & Blake, 1991; Ely, 2004). A study by Richard et al. (2004)
reported that demographic diversity at the firm level is associated with several
beneficial outcomes such as innovation, creativity, problem solving ability, and
increased competitive advantage.
Respect For Each Other/ Mutual Identity Confirmation - Working together with
different individuals in an organization requires a comfort level. Through diversity
management a common understanding and respect can be created among the employees.
This will to a great extend diminish the controversial effect which may otherwise
disrupt the flow of the performance in the long run. Brickson (2000), states that
identity orientation shapes diversity effects. The focus on the value of diversity
will bring a mutual respect which in turn will address the threat of distinction
of identities (van Knippenberg et. al., 2004).
Fig:1 shows the presence of diversity in the organization and how it affects the
overall outcome. From the figure it is clear that diversity comprises of surface
level and deep level which forms the basis for existence of organizational diversity.
At this point, pictures the need for diversity management which actually is the
voluntary act of the management. Diversity management has an impact on the total
performance of the organization.
Diversity Management and Organizational Performance:
The value of diversity is reinforced by a survey that found that a majority of both
HR professionals and job seekers believes diversity initiatives have made organizations
more successful. Diversity management has been posited as a moderator of the relationship
between diversity in the workplace and outcomes such as working relationships and
performance (Kochan et al., 2003). Researchers assert that diversity in organization
can bring both positive and negative outcomes (Christian, Porter & Moffitt,
2006; Milliken & Martins, 1996). There is always a question how diversity management
affects the performance of an organization (Jackson & Joshi, 2004). Employers
and management researchers have tried to improve their understanding of how workforce
diversity influences individual employee’s performance and the organization’s performance
(Jackson & Joshi, 2004). Studies (Jackson, Joshi, & Erhardt, 2003; Webber
& Donahue, 2001) have found that various forms of diversity are associated with
greater innovation, improved strategic decision-making, and organizational performance,
while other researchers have also found that diversity increases conflict, reduces
social cohesion, and increase turnover (Jackson & Joshi, 2004). It is also stated
by Cox (1993) that the existence of diversity may affect certain organizational
processes such as communications, creativity, and problem solving, which are closely
related to performance. Given the uncertainty of the effects of diversity management
on performance, there is a great need for an all-inclusive review to create a positive
link between diversity and performance of an organization (Kochan et al., 2003).
Different types of people see the world in different ways. The presence of diverse
perspectives on a particular problem will help to come up with creative ideas to
solve the complex problem. People of different age group, gender, attitudes, desires,
work behaviors etc. will have a difference in opinion with respect to the same problem
in concern. Such an environment is required in order to bring about brain-storming
ultimately resulting to some creativity ideas.
Organizational performance is a very essential issue for every organization be it
public or private; profit or non-profit; manufacturing or IT. Roberson and Jeong
Park (2007) found that there is a relationship between diversity reputation and
book-to-market equity, which suggests that diversity reputation, may signal investors
about companies’ future performance. The performance in the field of diversity management
of an organization will create a picture in the market which will decide the fate
of the organization. If the performance of the organization is remarkable then there
is every possibility that more talented personnel will look for being a part of
it. Diversity is one such factor which helps in creating goodwill for the organization.
If the organization is seen as valuing a diverse workforce, talented personnel will
not hesitate in joining the same. Creating an environment where every individual
can feel at home is very crucial in order to facilitate the outcome of the individuals,
more particular in today's competitive environment. Individuals if are satisfied
with the management of their needs by the organization will come out freely with
their ideas facilitating innovation, creativity which of course comes with the diverse
workforce. Thus, managing a diverse workforce requires the organization to adopt
a suitable diversity policies and strategies. This policies and strategies should
be included in the HR policies of the organization itself so that it becomes mandatory
and lasting; and so that people with diverse backgrounds feel included in the organization.
Even though many organizations have instituted diversity programs, most of them
have not documented how diversity efforts affect organizational performance. Concrete
framework towards diversity management hence needs to be executed.
Discussion and Conclusion:
Through the literature survey it has been found that diversity management is a crucial
necessity for an organization to be competitive. Mere following of the mandatory
rules and regulations laid by the government with regard to equal employment or
reservation system is not an end itself. Apart from following those criteria, organizations
should certainly have a clear cut diversity management outline about the practices
to be followed with respect to the diverse employees present in the organization.
Diversity is a fact; dealing with it is the best solution. The basic break drawn
from the literature survey and a prospect for conducting further research is to
find out which of the diversity factors mostly contribute to the efficiency level
with exposure on performance, as it has been found that presence of diversity factor
in different situation resulted into mixed results.
In today’s complex and ever growing fast technological age, an organization’s diverse
workforce is one of its most essential resources and a key asset depending on which
an organization can compete effectively through continuous innovation. Diversity
in all its dimensions is essential for the companies today as it will bring creativity
and innovation for an organization. Diversity is the process of creating greater
wealth through increased creativity and productivity. Talent does not come in uniform
package and the competition for it suggests that an organization really needs to
strive hard to leverage its talent. Organization should strive to leverage the knowledge
of the individual employees making use of its diverse characteristics. Individuals
come with a whole lot of knowledge imbedded in them which they will not leverage
until and unless they are willing to do so. The individual should feel at home so
that he can work freely in the environment which will be conducive for their creativity
and innovation. More specifically in a knowledge based organizations, individuals
are required to work mentally than physically, which signifies the importance of
leveraging the knowledge of the individual as the first priority to attend to. Diversity
is such one factor which needs to be taken care of, if the organization wants the
individual to contribute to the organization positively.
Organizational performance relies on the individual employees and their output towards
the total output of the organization. Performance being an important issue for an
organization cannot be left unnoticed or overlooked. Steps to achieve a positive
outcome towards performance need to be taken care of. Ample evidence exist where
innovation, creativity, increased productivity is seen where diversity is managed
effectively which of course is the indicator of positive organizational performance.
It is our responsibility as individuals and for the organizations as a whole to
recognize, respect, and value the differences of all individuals and thus utilize
the opportunity to learn from our colleagues and the diversity of their background.
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