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April 2015

A study of factors associated with Heritage and pilgrimage tourism in Madhya Pradesh

Dr. Shikha Chaturvedi

Lecturer, International Institute of Professional Studies, DAVV, Indore.

Dr. B.K. Tripathi

Professor, International Institute of Professional Studies, DAVV, Indore.

Dr. A.K. Singh

Director, EMRC, DAVV, Indore.

 

 

Abstract

           Madhya Pradesh is one of the largest states of India and is aptly called the Heart of India. This state is a wonderful amalgamation of rich past, fascinating scenic beauty and strategic urban planning. There are many architectural monuments and heritage sites that can be found in the various towns of Madhya Pradesh. There are also lots of pilgrim sites that are located in Madhya Pradesh and attract many pilgrim tourists. The present study aims “to identify the factors associated with heritage and pilgrimage tourism in Madhya Pradesh. It has been noticed that inspite of having mystical attraction MP has still not got response from the tourist thus this study will find out the factors which enhance the public image of MP tourism industry; For this purpose, the data is collected from 320 tourist from six destination of Madhya Pradesh i.e Khajuraho, Mandav, Gwalior, Omkareshwar, Sanchi and Ujjain on a 5-point likert scale. The data so obtained is analysed by using Factor analysis technique. From the Factor Analysis, the data obtained from the respondents showed that perceived attractiveness depends on six factors of tourist attributes out of fifty-one attributes. The factors, which have been highlighted for MP Heritage and Pilgrimage Tourism being considered as Protected and Peaceful Ambience, Hygienic Amenities, Information Dissemination, Infrastructure & Hospitality, Allied Services, and Eco-cultural Attractions.

 

 

Key Words: Tourist, Heritage, Pilgrimage, Factor Analysis.

 

 

Introduction

Over the years since independence, the Indian Tourism has evolved as an important industry. The benefit of this has accrued over large segments of the population, and MP is one state, which offers variety of experiences to the tourist. Madhya Pradesh has an inherent charm and a place of its own because of its interior location, unmatched beauty and primitiveness. It is a giant state with rich endowments of land, people, history and culture. It also has its own share of negative aspects, especially the size and distances that have, in a way, hampered the growth of communication. Even a methodological appraisal of its resources would compare it more favorably with any other region in the country. Tourism needs variety and MP has varied tourism products, which satisfy the needs and demands of almost every class of visitors. But, despite of various resources and potential of satisfying the needs and motives of almost every class of visitor, the state of MP have not been able to attract more and more tourist, particularly international tourist, to their shores. After going through the studies conducted in the areas of tourism it was found that most of these studies conducted in south East Asia. In these studies researchers have identified various variables which are considered important in tourism industry like tourist destinations image, tourist behavior, tourist’ attraction, tourist experience, satisfaction, motivation, and perception towards facilities at tourist destinations, tourism package, information, hospitality, price, hygiene, amenities, value for money, logistics, food and security etc.  After analyzing various researches it can be seen that in most of the researches international arena is being covered and very few researches are being carried out in the area of domestic tourism. No research work related to heritage and pilgrimage tourism in Madhya Pradesh was found. Therefore, there is a lot of scope of research in this particular area. This research works in an endeavor to plug this gap.

 

OBJECTIVE

To identify the factors associated with Heritage and pilgrimage tourism in Madhya

Pradesh.

 

 

Literature Review

Murphy Laurie, Pierre Benckendorff, Moscardo gianna (2007), concluded that there can be an association between a destination and a destination brand personality, Prayag , Girish (2009) concluded that destination image has a direct and an indirect influence over future behavior and Satisfaction.  Hosany, Sameer, Gilbert, David (2010) have identified three salient dimensions namely, joy, love, and positive surprise that has a significant influence on tourist behavioral intentions to visit a particular destination. Moses Makonjio Okello and Sarah Yerian(2009) assessed that  non-wildlife attractions enhanced their tourist experience.

 

Fang Meng, Tepanon, Yodmanee, Uysal, Muzaffer (2008) identified that friendly/quality services and lodging performance are significant factors in determining the overall tourist satisfaction, of a particular destination. Prebensen, Nina. K. (2005) found that there is a significance difference between regions expressed when it comes to tourist motivation and experience. Kurt Matzler, Hubert J. Siller, (2003) concluded that there is difference between travel motivations in summer and winter tourism. Glenn McCartney, (2008) found that there are significant differences between the Chinese travelers from the various cities on leading image perception attributes, travel behaviors, travel motives and influences of sources of information. Maria D. Alvarez, Meral Korzay, (2008) analyzed that Television and the written press are determined as the most significant information sources which has major influence on perceptions of tourist towards Turkey as a tourist destination. Vincent Cho (2008) has developed theoretical model to predict the intention to visit a destination by underlying beliefs on location attractiveness, effort expectancy, social norms, and self-lifestyle fit. However, Chen, Chien Min: Chen, Sheu Hua: Lee, Hong Tau(2010) concluded that tourism industry can not merely depend on  curiosity or the mysteriousness of the destination. It is necessary to provide a product with integrity for the planning of the tourism industry.

 

SAMPLE

There are around 15 tourist’ destinations in Madhya Pradesh. Out of these 15 destinations six tourist destinations were selected randomly. From randomly selected destinations total three hundred twenty tourist were randomly selected.  The distribution of sample is given in separate tables:

TOURIST DESTINATIONS OF MADHYA PRADESH

Randomly Selected Tourist Destinations of Madhya Pradesh

Heritage Tourism

Gwalior, Khajuraho, Mandu

Pilgrim Tourism

Ujjain, Omkareshwar, Sanchi

Three hundred twenty tourist were randomly selected from six destinations of MP. Twenty percent tourist were selected from Khajuraho, 17% were from Omkareshwar, and 16% each from Gwalior, Mandav, Sanchi and Ujjain. The destination wise sample percentages ranged from 15 percent to 20 percent. The distribution of tourist by gender. Out of 320 respondents 68 %( 216) were males, whereas 32 %( 103) were females.  The largest age group of respondent i.e. 67% was less than 35 years where as 31% of the respondent were more than 35 years.  In the sample 55% (175) respondents were married, whereas 45% (143) of the respondents were unmarried. Most of the tourist visited these destinations came from urban area (70%). Only 18% tourist belongs to semi urban and 11% to rural. Majorities of the tourist 78 % were Indian and 22% were foreign nationals. In terms of the level of education, 40% of the respondents had completed graduation followed by post graduates (35%), higher secondary (21%) and others (4%). Majority of tourist were from service class (36%), where as 24% and 23% belonged to business and agriculture occupation respectively.

 

DESIGN AND PROCEDURE OF DATA COLLECTION

The present study was a survey in nature. The randomly selected 320 tourist were administered a scale namely perception scale towards heritage & pilgrimage tourism in Madhya Pradesh. The tourists were asked to read the statements carefully and put a tick mark against the option, which is most suited to them. The scales were collected after its completion. The data were collected in three month’s time.

TOOL

In the present study a scale was developed by the investigator to assess the perception of tourist towards heritage & pilgrimage tourist destination in M.P.  The various aspects of tourism were covered while preparing the scale. In the beginning there were 70 statements. In the scale for each statement there was a five point scale, namely, strongly agree, agree, undecided, disagree and strongly disagree (SA, A, UD, D, SD). The tourists were asked to read the statements carefully and out of five alternatives put a tick mark against the alternative, which describes the best for him/her. The weight-ages for statements were 5, 4,3,2,1. Firstly the scale was given to five experts in the field. After receiving the opinion of experts five statements were deleted. The language of scale was also modified. The tool having 65 items was administered to 20 tourists for small group tryout. After small group try out three more items were removed from the scale. The sub heading in the scale was also omitted. Thus, tool consisted of 55 items were administered to 320 tourist. The item analysis was done on the basis of item total correlation. After item analysis, there were 51 statements in the scale. The split half reliability of the scale was 0.84. The content validity was established for the scale.

STATISTICAL TECHNIQUES: The data were analyzed with the help of Factor Analysis.

RESULTS AND INTERPRETATION

 

Factors associated with Heritage and pilgrimage

tourism in Madhya Pradesh: The objective of the present research was to study the factors associated with Heritage and pilgrimage tourism in Madhya Pradesh. The data related to this objective was analysed with the help of Factor Analysis. Results are given in following Tables:

Rotation Sums of Squared Loadings

 

Total

% of Variance

Cumulative %

 

1

5.611

11.002

11.002

 

2

4.559

8.938

19.940

 

3

3.487

6.838

26.779

 

4

3.090

6.059

32.838

 

5

2.829

5.546

38.384

 

6

2.661

5.218

43.602

 

shikha0.jpg

Fifty-one variables were reduced to six factors on the basis of commonness. Six factors have 43% of variance. Factor one has 11%, Factor two has 8.93%, Factor 3 has 6.84%, Factor 4 has 6%, Factor has 5 5.5%, and Factor 6 has 5.21%. Factor wise variables and their factor loadings are given in following tables:

Variables and Factor Loadings for Protected and Peaceful Ambience

Variables

Factor Loadings

Privacy

.630

less disturbance by hawkers

.629

Fair price for transportation

.590

Well behaviour of drivers

.581

clean accommodation

.561

good attitude towards female

.559

fair prices for domestic n foreign tourist

.528

Less disturbance by beggars

.520

Peaceful atmosphere

.516

Free from pollution

.515

Good ambience

.508

Clean arrival port

.495

fair prices for resident and tourist

.434

Safe and secure for female

.372

 

Factor one is comprised of 14 variables having 11% of variance. The highest factor loading is 0.630 and the lowest is 0.372. The variables are associated with privacy, safety, cleanliness and fairness of prices. Therefore it is named as Protected and Peaceful ambience.

Variables and Factor Loadings for Hygienic Amenities

Variables

Factor Loadings

Tasty local food

.626

Easy availability of preferred food

.596

well maintained streets

.594

good road links

.552

Clean tourist spot

.535

well conserved heritage

.527

hygienic food

.519

clean restaurant

.516

Clean temple

.503

Good shopping

Facilities

.417

 

Factor two is comprised of 10 variables having 8.9% of variance. The highest factor loading is 0.626 and the lowest is 0.417. The variables are associated with availability of preferred food, maintenance of properties, etc. Therefore it is named as Hygienic Amenities.

Variables and Factor Loadings for Information Dissemination

Variables

Factor Loadings

personal guidance in tourist conveyance

.736

personal guidance at tourist spot

.657

easy availability of tourist information

.563

tour package is price worthy

.509

Availability of information centre

.445

Domestic flights are price worthy

.377

Easy availability of parking

.361

 Immigration officials are Courteous

.353

 

Factor three is comprised of 8 variables having 6.8% of variance. The highest factor loading is 0.736 and the lowest is 0.353. The variables are associated with availability of tourist information, personal guidance, prices of tour packages and flights etc. Therefore it is named as Information Dissemination.

Variables and Factor Loadings for Infrastructure and Hospitality

Variables

Factor Loadings

Destination are easily accessible

.638

Accommodation acc. to budget

.555

Easily availability of local conveyance

.534

 Destination is worth to visit

.485

Good behaviour of other tourist

.431

Easy communication in terms of language

.407

Food is price worthy

.387

Courteous Staff

.362

 

Factor four is comprised of 8 variables having 6% of variance. The highest factor loading is 0.638 and the lowest is 0.362. The variables are associated with accommodation facilities, transportation facilities, communication and behaviour. Therefore it is named as Infrastructure & Hospitality

Variables and Factor Loadings for Allied Services

Variables

Factor Loadings

Good internet connectivity

.696

Good telecom connectivity

.672

Availability of banking services

.578

Availability

Of medical facilities

.407

 

Factor five is comprised of 4 variables having 5.5% of variance. The highest factor loading is 0.696 and the lowest is 0.407. The variables are associated with availability of Internet facilities, telecom facilities, banking services and medical facilities. Therefore it is named as Allied Services.

 

Variables and Factor Loadings for Eco-cultural Attraction

Variables

Factor Loadings

Variety of landmarks

.655

Natural beauty of destination

.624

Rich in cultural heritage

.575

Climate is suitable

.490

Offer good sight seeing

.428

Opportunity for cultural exchange

.404

Scope for adventure tourism

.357

 

Factor six is comprised of 7 variables having 5.2% of variance. The highest factor loading is 0.655 and the lowest is 0.357. The variables are associated with attractions of destinations, climate, cultural and adventure tourism etc. Therefore it is named as Eco-cultural Attractions.

 Naming of the Factors:

Factors

Names

Factor 1

Protected and peaceful ambience

Factor 2

Hygienic Amenities

Factor 3

Information Dissemination

Factor 4

Infrastructure & Hospitality

 

Factor 5

Allied Services

Factor 6

Eco-cultural Attractions

 

 

 

From the Factor Analysis, the data obtained from the respondents showed that perceived attractiveness depends on six factors of tourist attributes out of fifty-one attributes. The factors, which have been highlighted for MP Heritage and Pilgrimage Tourism being considered as Protected and peaceful ambience, Hygienic Amenities, Information Dissemination, Infrastructure & Hospitality, Allied Services, and Eco-cultural Attractions.

 

By identifying these factors, this study contributes to a greater understanding of the factors that were perceived by tourist that are collectively responsible for Madhya Pradesh economic growth on tourism. The heritage and pilgrimage tourism destinations of Madhya Pradesh are considered as an important holiday destination, because of Natural Beauty, Historic Sites, Places of worship and life style.

 

This study represents a step towards better understanding of factors associated with the development of heritage and pilgrimage tourism in Madhya Pradesh. Madhya Pradesh is well known for its tourist’s destinations. It will be appropriate for Madhya Pradesh to focus on building and maintaining strong tourist’s relationships by considering these important factors.

Protected and peaceful ambience has emerged as most important factor. It indicates that tourists prefer to visit a tourist place, which is secure and peaceful.  It may be because the tourist spots covered under this study are of pilgrimage and heritage nature.  Safety is the major concern for tourist to make a decision on destination selection. This factor has also been identified by other researchers too. Pizam and Mansfeld (1996: 1) indicated “safety, tranquility and peace are necessary conditions for prosperous tourism, most tourist will not spend their hard earned money to go to a destination where their safety and well-being may be in jeopardy”. It has been generally accepted that safety and security at a destination are critical determinants of its competitiveness. Elements of safety and security include political instability/unrest, probability of terrorism, crime rates, record of transportation safety, corruption of police/administrative services, quality of sanitation, prevalence of outbreak of disease, and quality/unreliability of medical services (Dwyer and Kim, 2003: 397).

In this age of globalization, serious crime against tourist hits the international headlines around the world and can destroy the tourist destination in the short run (Christie & Crompton, 2001: 29). The 1992 Florida, USA, tourist murders, for example, generated considerable media attention and resulted in a significant decline of tourism (Dimanche & Lepetic, 1999: 19). Tourist’s perceptions of safety and security to a destination will have a significant effect on the destination’s image. Researchers have testified that the image of a destination can significantly impact on tourist’ destination choice (Hunt, 1975; Goodrich, 1978; Scott et al., 1978; and Milman & Pizam, 1995). A good safety and security image can attract more tourists to visit a certain destination.

Hygienic Amenities emerged as the second most important factor from this study. Providing basic hygienic amenities at tourist' destinations is a must to attract tourist at heritage and pilgrimage tourist's spots. It usually includes availability of preferred and hygienic food, well maintained streets, well conserved heritage, cleanliness of tourist spots etc.

Information Dissemination emerged as the third factor from this study. There is a general lack of easy and tourist-friendly information at any tourist place. Our 'tourist information centre' at most of the railway stations or airports is either not manned at all or is occupied by tourist which are hardly visible when needed. There should be some staff at such places who can guide the tourist once they arrive at a new place.

Infrastructure and Hospitality is also an important factor that emerged from this study. Tourism is Tourist Industry. Service is created and performed by people (service providers) for people (Tourist). What makes service outstanding and memorable is a sequence of events participated by a variety of willingly involved and competent personnel. Hotels, transport, standardised rates, will facilitate the tourism in Madhya Pradesh.

The tourism industry which supports the creation of community facilities and services that otherwise might not have been developed can bring higher well-being standards to a destination in terms of allied services. Benefits can include upgraded infrastructures, health and transport improvements, new sport and recreational facilities, restaurants and public spaces as well as an influx of better-quality commodities and food.

The factors like hygienic amenities, information dissemination, infrastructure and hospitality and allied services can be termed as services at tourist destinations. Hence, the services of a destination are important in tourist’ destination choice. In the eyes of many tourist, destinations function more effectively, when their services are in abundance. Thus, prosperity of a destination’s tourism is highly related to its provision of numerous ancillary services (Dwyer & Kim, 2003: 381). In fact, tourism, by itself, can be deemed as a service industry. Services exist in the whole processes of a tourist’s visitation, such as in transportation, shopping, diet, accommodation, and administration. Provision of reliable and responsive visitor services can significantly enhance a destination’s competitive advantage. Research shows that the range of services is the main attribute in growth or decline of most destinations (Haber & Lerner, 1998: 198). Services of a destination can be evaluated by its quality, especially the quality perceived by tourist. The perceived quality of services is vital for a destination, because it can significantly impact on tourist’s satisfaction with the destination (Chadee & Mattsson, 1996: 306). If a tourist receives low-quality services at a destination, and get dissatisfaction with the trip, the future re-visitation to the destination might be in doubt. On the other hand, a good quality of services received by a tourist may increase the perception of ‘trip-value’, and in turn, increase the tourist’ likelihood to visit the destination again and recommend the destination to other tourist. Thus, service is an important factor for a destination to attract more tourists.

Eco cultural factors bring tourist into contact with each other. As tourism has an educational element it can foster understanding between tourist and cultures and provide cultural exchange between hosts and guests. This increases the chances for tourist to develop mutual sympathy and understanding and to reduce prejudices. Formica (2000: 39) believes that natural vistas and appealing landscapes have always been key attributes in determining the tourism attractiveness of a destination. Lohmann and Kaim (1999) conducted a representative survey of German citizens to evaluate the importance of certain destination attributes. The attribute – landscape, was found to be the most important even before price considerations (Lohmann & Kaim, 1999: 61). A similar point of view was taken by Hu and Ritchie (1993). In their study of measuring the importance of destination attributes, they concluded that natural beauty and climate were of universal importance in defining destinations attractiveness (Hu and Ritchie, 1993: 32). Thus, nature-based beautiful scenery could be deemed as a meaningful attribute for a destination to attract more visitors. Local tourist's attitude towards tourist is a major social factor forming part of the macro-environment of a destination (Dwyer & Kim, 2003: 384-385), which may influence tourist’ satisfaction with their trip and is, therefore, vital to the success of the destination (Andriotis & Vaughan, 2003: 172).  

Conclusion

In Madhya Pradesh Heritage and Pilgrimage Tourism has the potential to improve the preservation and transmission of cultural and historical traditions. Contributing to the conservation and sustainable management of these resources can bring usually the chance to protect local heritage or to revitalize native cultures, for instance by regenerating cultural arts and crafts. The benefits of tourism for visitors are numerous: they can enjoy unspoiled nature and landscapes, environmental quality (clean air and water), a healthy community with low crime rate, thriving and authentic local culture and traditions. The Department of tourism Madhya Pradesh should take important initiatives and steps in order to provide facilities by implementing various schemes and plans to rise and attract large number of tourist both domestic and foreign in the study region as well as in the entire State.


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